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Wednesday, November 30, 2011

PowerPoint Presentation On Contract Farming

Contract Farming PPT


1. Contract Farming
One Option For Creating A Role For The Private Sector In Agriculture Development?

2. What Is Contract Farming ?
The Farmer Is Contracted to Plant the Contractor’s Crop on His Land
Harvest and Deliver to the Contractor, a Quantum of Produce, Based Upon Anticipated Yield and Contracted Acreage
This Is at a Pre Agreed Price
Towards These Ends, the Contractor May or May Not Supply the Farmer With Selected Inputs


4. What Else Did It Do?
Mono-culture,over fertilization & excessive water usage
Soil degradation..
Singular focus on supported crops discourages diversification.
Subsidized exports to liquidate stock creates a further distance between the international market & domestic reality.
To succeed in this context contract farming needs to go well beyond its simple definition

5. Why Contract Farming ?
To reduce the load on the central & state level procurement system.
To increase private sector investment in agriculture.
To bring about a market focus in terms of crop selection by Indian farmers.
To generate a steady source of income at the individual farmer level.
To promote processing & value addition.
To generate gainful employment in rural communities, particularly for landless agricultural labor.
To flatten as far as possible, any seasonality associated with such employment.
To reduce migration from rural to urban areas.
To promote rural self-reliance in general by pooling locally available resources & expertise to meet new challenges.

6. Moving From Food Security To Market Demand

7. Moving To A Value Delivery Sequence

8. The Advantages Of Contract Farming
To The Farmer
Exposure To World Class Mechanized Agro Technology.
Obtains An Assured Up Front Price & Market Outlet For His Produce.
No Requirement To Grade Fruit, As Mandatory For Fresh Market Sale.
Bulk Supplies Versus Small Lots As Again Reqd By The Fresh Market.
Crop Monitoring On A Regular Basis. Technical Advice, Free Of Cost At His Doorstep.
Supplies Of
Healthy Disease Free Nursery
Agricultural Implements
Technical Bulletins Etc
Remunerative Returns

9. The Advantages Of Contract Farming
To The Company:
Uninterrupted & Regular Flow Of Raw Material.
Protection From Fluctuation In Market Pricing.
Long Term Planning Made Possible.
Concept Can Be Extended To Other Crops.
Builds Long Term Commitment
Dedicated Supplier Base
Generates Goodwill For The Organization.

10. Contract Farming - Industry Related Issues
Honoring Contracts - there is no credible enforcement mechanism in place.
Small size of land holdings.
Need to contract with a larger number of farmers, thereby increasing risk.
Lack of a comprehensive crop insurance scheme

11. Some Suggestions To Promote Contract Farming
Contract farming organizations are allowed to take out realistic & deregulated crop insurance policies.
Facilitate import of varieties / hybrids for contract farmers. Growth will be led by productivity enhancement & market focus.
Research system synergy with both farmers & private sector

12. In Conclusion
India, given the diverse agro climatic zones, can be a competitive producer of a large number of crops.
Need to convert our factor price advantage into sustainable competitive advantage.
Contract farming offers one possible solution.

13. Thank You.

PowerPoint Presentation On XML



1. Extensible Markup Language

2. XML Is A W3C Standard
First official XML specification (1.0) published in February 1998.
XML is upper version of HTML.

3. A method for putting structured data in a text file. Uses tags to specify certain rules. Used with a processing application that knows how to handle tags.

4. XML is meta language that describe the content of document
Java = portable program
XML = portable data
XML does not specify the tag set or grammar of the language

5. The “X” in XML
Tags are defined by the person creating the document.
Tag sets have been developed for specialized topics.
–Chemistry, math, music, libraries, calendar events, addresses, etc.

6. Key Uses Of XML
Data storage
Data exchange
Document publishing

7. XML: Data Storage
Searching the data is relatively easy.
Format is standard.
Standard tools for input/output and validation exist.
Easy to read files makes debugging easier.

8. XML: Data Exchange
Data is relatively easy to read and edit with a simple text editor.
Complex relationships like trees and inheritance can be communicated.
Tags are self-describing, human readable.
Automatic data validation.

9. XML: Document Display
Meaning of tags is handled by XSL.
–Instructions for transforming one kind of document to another.
–Common transformation is XML to HTML
One XML may be linked to multiple XSL files.
–Content in one file can be rendered for the Web, print, smart phones, etc.
Separation of content from presentation.

10. Processing Applications
Processing applications
–Check that XML document meets standards for being “well formed”.
–Validate based on syntax defined in the DTD(Document Type Definition)
–Transform based on instructions in the XSL

11. Why XML?
Four different renderings generated from a single XML file.
–Text only
–Site map
–Quick links
Link consistency.

12. XML Examples
VT home page (top level university pages).
-One XML file stores all content, links
- XSL transforms the XML into HTML
Hokie Portal
–an XML-based syndication format

13. Why Use XML?
Allows for distributed content management.
Various university departments may “own” RSS channels.
Channel owners edit their content directly.
Webmaster controls display.
Automatic validation of RSS files.

14. When You Might Use XML
Store and search small amounts of data.
Exchange data between different applications or organizations.
Separate content from presentation.

15. Tools
Tool exist for many programming languages.
–Java, ASP, PHP
XML processing application

16. Future Of XML
Editors and processing applications that are easier to use.
Built in browser support

17. Thank You.
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