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Monday, January 30, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Lakshmi Niwas Mittal

PPT On Lakshmi Niwas Mittal


Presentation Transcript:

2. Few Points On Mittal Status
He is the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of AECELOR MITTAL
Mr. Mittal is the richest man in INDIA,ASIA and THE U.K and Second in Europe
He is presently 6th Richest individuals in the world with a personal wealth of US$31.1 billion

Lakshmi Niwas Mittal was born in to a Marwadi Business Family in churu district of Rajasthan, India.
He married with USHA, the daughter of a well-to-do moneylender.

4. education
He graduated from St. Xaviers Collage Calcutta with a Bachelor of Commerce Degree in Business and Accounting with First class.

In year 2002,Lakshmi Niwas mittal and Usha mittal foundation and the government of Rajasthan partnered together to established a university named the LNM INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY(LNMIIT) in Jaipur. As an autonomous non-profit organization.

Mr. Mittal Started his carrier working in families steel making business in India in 1976.
He set out established its international division beginning with the buying of run-down plant in Indonesia
Mittal steel is the largest steel maker in the world, with shipment of 50 million tones of steel and profit of an $22 billion in 2007


Mr.Mittal bought No.6 palace Greens Kensington Garden at ₤117 Million for his son ADITY MITTAL.

Aditya Mittal Owner and director of the Board of the GERMAN FASHION LUXURY BRAND ESCADA

Mr.Mittal bought No.9 A palace Greens Kensington Garden at ₤70 Million for his Daughter VANISHA MITTAL BHATIA.

VANISHA MITTAL married to AMIT BHATIA a Businessman and a Philanthropist

Vanisha Mittal's wedding was the most expensive in the recorded history of the world

10. THANK YOU..!!
Nigam Raj
Delhi Business School

PowerPoint Presentation On Regulation of Gene Expression

PPT On Regulation of Gene Expression


Presentation Transcript:

Although Gregor John Mendel for the first time use the term Factor for hereditary units.
This mystery of hereditary unit reveled till 1900s. In 1909 W. Johanson coined the term Gene.
The earlier workers proposed various hypothesis to explain exact nature of gene.
At present we all know that, ‘Genes are made of DNA’.
Now we can define gene as, “Gene is a nucleic acid sequence that carries the information representing a particular polypeptide”.

3. Gene expressed itself through a series of steps involved in a sequential synthesis of products.
This can be summarized as follows-
During the course of evolution cell have evolved control mechanism to insure that proteins are synthesized in the required amount at a specific time.
Thus we can say that organisms have evolved the ability to regulate the expression of a specific gene in response to environmental signal.

Gene expression means synthesis of a particular product due to gene action.
Some of the gene product required by the cell under all growth conditions are called House keeping gene. These include constitutive gene & their expression is called constitutive gene expression.
Some gene are expressed only when their product is needed for growth & development under a given environment their expression is turn off when product is not needed such genes are called Regulatory gene.
Regulatory Genes includes-
Inducible Gene
Repressible Gene

Regulation of gene expression may be defined as, set of mechanism controlling the activation or inactivation of a particular gene.
The exhaustive mechanism/investigation have been established on the basis of study of gene expression in bacteria and viruses, that regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes occur mostly at two levels-
Transcriptional level
Translational level
Some time RNA degradation & protein modification also play major role in regulating but most of the prokaryotic genes that are regulated are controlled at transcriptional level.

Positive Regulation:- When the expression of genetic information is quantitatively increased by the presence of a specific regulatory element it is called positive regulation. It is regulated by inducible gene.
Negative Regulation:- When the expression of genetic information diminished by the presence of specific regulatory element it is called Negative regulation .It is done by repressible gene.
There are some mechanism have been given to explain the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes.

This is the model for transcriptional regulation of gene expression firstly F. Jacobs and J. monad in [1961] on the basis of there study on inducible system for the synthesis of the β- galactosidase enzymes in E. Coli proposed a model in order explain the induction & repression of gene expression. They got Nobel prized for this in [1965].
According to Jacob & Monad an operon (Unit of Gene Expression & Regulation) includes-
regulator gene
Promoter gene
Operator gene
Structural genes..

The lac operon is proposed by-Jacob & Monod (1961). Based on their study on regulation of lactose, metabolism of E. Coli.
This operon is consists of 3-contigeous structural genes (Lac Z, Lac Y & Lac A), a promoter & a regulator & an operator gene.
Lac Z Codes for β-galactosidase; an intracellular enzyme that cleaves the disaccharide lactose into glucose & galactose.
Lac Y codes for the - β galctosidase preameese; a membrane bound transport protein that pumps lactose into the cell.
Lac A code for β- galactosidase transacetylase; that transfers an acetyl group from Co-A to - β galactosidase.

The lac genes are controlled by negative regulation. In the absence of lactose (inducer) the repression occur on the operator binding site & very low level of transcription of loc Z, Y & A occurs.
When the lactose is available to the cell the low level of permease allow the up take of lactose & galactosidase catalyses the conversion of some lactose to allotactose.
Allolactose acts as an inducer & binds to the lac repressor. This causes a change in conformation of repressor reducing its affinity for the lac operon. The removal of lac-repressor from operator site allow the RNAP to bind at the promoter site (P lac) to begin the transcription of lac Z, Y, A gene.
The lac operon is an example of negative control of gene expression because bound repressor prevents the transcription of structural gene.

The P-lac promoter is not a strong promoter. It requires the presence of specific proteins called cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or some time called as catabolic activator protein (CAP).
When glucose is present in environment E-coli does not need any alternate carbon source such as lactose. There for lac operon is not normally activated. Glucose reduces the level of c-AMP in the cell. CRP (catabolic) receptor protein) which exist as a dimmer, can not bind to DNA in the absence of cAMP.

11. When glucose is absent level of cAMP in the cell is increases & CRP binds to cAMP. The CRP-cAMP complex then binds to the lactose operon promoter just upstream from site of RNAP.
It is believed that CRP-cAMP complex increases the binding of RNAP to the promoter & thus increasing the transcription rate 5o times. This type of gene regulation is an example of positive control of gene regulation.
As a fact we can say that the lac operon is subject to both positive & regulation.

The trp operon is an example of biosynthetic operon also called as repressible operon.
The organization of five structural gene (trp E, trp D, trp C, trp B & trp A) & adjacent regulatory sequence of trp operon has been studied in details by Charles Yanofsky et;al in 1976.
The five structural genes coding for the enzymes needed for tryptophan biosynthesis from chorismate. These structural gene codes for 3 enzymes required for the biosynthesis of tryptophan from chorismic acid.
Anthranilate synthetase – Encoded by trp E & trp D
Tryptophan synthetase- Encoded by trp B & trp A.
N-(5’phosphoribosyl)–anthranilate isomerase Indole -3 glycerol phosphate synthetase- Encoded by the trp C.
These structural gene are contiguous with promoter operator.

13. For more please refer PPT.

Thursday, January 19, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Business Plan

PPT On Business Plan


Presentation Transcript:
1. Business Plan

2. Mission Statement
A clear statement of your company’s long-term mission.
Try to use words that will help direct the growth of your company, but be as concise as possible.

3. Learning Objectives
To define what the business plan is, who prepares it, who
reads it, and how it is evaluated.
To understand the scope and value of the business plan to
investors, lenders, employees, suppliers, and customers
To identify information needs and sources for each critical
section of the business plan.
To enhance awareness of the ability of the internet as an
information resource and marketing tool.
To present examples and a step by step explanation of the
business plan.
To present helpful questions for the entrepreneur at each
stage of the planning process.
To understand how to monitor the business plan.

4. The Team
List CEO and key management by name
Include previous accomplishments to show that these are people with a record of success
Summarize number of years of experience in this field

5. Market Summary
Market past, present, & future
Review those changes in market share, leadership, players, market shifts, costs, pricing, or competition that provide the opportunity for your company’s success.

6. Opportunities
Problems and opportunities
State consumer problems, and define the nature of product/service opportunities that are created by those problems.

7. Business Concept
Summarize the key technology, concept, or strategy on which your business is based

8. Competition
Summarize competition
Outline your company’s competitive advantage

9. Goals & Objectives
Five-year goals
State specific, measurable objectives.
State market share objectives.
State revenue/profitability objectives.

10. Financial Plan
A high-level financial plan that defines the financial model and the pricing assumptions and that reviews yearly expected sales and profits for the next three years
Use several slides to cover this material appropriately

11. Resource Requirements
Technology requirements
Personnel requirements
Resource requirements
Financial, distribution, promotional, etc.
External requirements
Products, services, technologies that must be purchased outside the company

12. Risks & Rewards
Summarize risks of proposed project
Addressing risks
Summarize how risks will be addressed
Estimate expected pay-off, particularly if seeking funding

13. Key Issues
Near term
Isolate key decisions and issues that need immediate or near-term resolution.
Long term
Isolate issues needing long-term resolution.
State consequences of decision postponement.
If you are seeking funding, state specifics

14. Thanks

Friday, January 13, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Evolution

PPT On Evolution


Presentation Transcript:
1. Evolution is one of the most important concepts in the Science of Biology. In fact Biology simply does not make sense without Evolution. Evolution is the idea that all living things arose from a single common ancestor in the distant past and that life continues to diversify today as new species appear. Evolution explains why we can classify organisms into different groups (because some organisms are more closely related than others). Evolution explains why the cells of all organisms use the same kind of biochemical machinery (because all life shares a common ancestor). This talk deals with the discovery of evolution, how evolution works, and the evidence for evolution.

2. All living things share a single common ancestor in the distant past and all living things are related to one another. In much the same way that we might draw a family tree of our own ancestors, scientists can draw a Tree of Life to show how all living things are related. Evolution is the process by which one species gives rise to another and the Tree of Life grows.

3. There is often considerable confusion as to whether the concept of evolution is a theory or a fact. Actually it is both! Evolutionary theory deals with how evolution happens. This is an area of active research and new insights are constantly emerging to explain how one species gives rise to another. However, Evolution is also a fact because there is a great deal of indisputable evidence, as we will see in this talk, in support of its occurrence. What is uncertain is exactly HOW it happens, NOT whether it has happened at all.

4. This talk has three parts. In the first part we will look at the scientific breakthroughs that led to the discovery of evolution between 1800 and 1940 and consider some of the objections to evolution raised by some fundamentalist religious groups. In the discussion that follows we will debate a controversial issue that is often raised by fundamentalist Christians in the USA - whether Creationism and Evolution should be given “equal time” in science lessons. In the second part, we will think about how Evolution works, and consider how one species can give rise to another. In the Practical we will then consider an example of Evolution in action as we turn our attention to the case of the Peppered Moth. Finally, and most importantly, we will address the evidence for Evolution and show why Biology simply does not make sense without it.

5. So let’s start by thinking about the discovery of Evolution. Beginning in Classical times and persisting until long after the Renaissance, scientists thought species were fixed and unchangeable (or ‘immutable’ to use the language of the era). Their reasoning ran something like this: if God’s creation was perfect from the start, why would He bother to tinker with it at a later date?

6. However, around 1800, some scientists began to wonder if species could change their form or ‘transmute’. One of the early proponents of this idea was French scientist, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck (1744-1829). If species were able to change their form over time, then how did it happen? Lamarck thought that if an animal acquired a characteristic during its lifetime, it could pass it onto its offspring. One of his favorite examples was the giraffe. In his view, the giraffe got its long neck through straining to reach the leaves on high branches, and this characteristic got passed down the generations. Most scientists of his day thought that Lamarck was wrong. At that time, only a few radical thinkers like Charles Darwin’s grandfather, Erasmus, agreed that species could change over time.

7. About the same time that these radical thinkers were discussing the transmutation (or evolution) of species, geologists like William Smith were beginning to map the rocks and fossils of Britain. Smith and others were able to show that rocks were laid down in a certain order and that the different fossils in different layers lived at different intervals of geological time. Here was clear evidence that different species had existed in the past compared with today. However, Smith did not go on to ask the question, ‘Why?’ or to consider that this might be evidence for evolution.

8. In the early nineteenth century, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) rekindled ideas about evolution. In a sense, Evolution was in Darwin’s blood because, as we’ve already noted, his grandfather was an early supporter of the concept. From 1831-1836, Darwin toured the world on HMS Beagle as a young naturalist. He was dazzled by the amazing diversity of life, including some amazing fossils such as rodents the size of hippopotamuses and started to wonder how it might have originated.

9. On his return from the Beagle the jigsaw pieces started to fit together in his mind. Around 1842 Darwin read an essay about human population growth by Malthus. Malthus had argued that human population would grow more quickly than food supply. Consequently competition for food would become intense and only the fittest and most able would survive. Darwin applied these ideas to all of life and came up with his now famous concept of Natural Selection. Darwin reasoned that if an organism possessed a character that improved its chances of survival, then it would be more likely to pass on that character to the next generation. Therefore organisms would become progressively adapted to their environment, leading to the evolution of new species. Darwin published this idea in his “Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection” in 1859.

10. However, Darwin’s concept of Evolution by Natural Selection was met with considerable controversy and debate. Although some Christians were willing to accept Evolution, if God was allowed to guide the process, most were opposed to the idea of Evolution being driven by random competition and natural laws. However, some leading scientists did embrace Evolution. One of these was Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), who became known as “Darwin’s bulldog” for his ferocious support of Darwin. On 30 June 1860, Huxley debated Evolution with Bishop Wilberforce at a British Association meeting in Oxford. In the debate, Wilberforce infamously inquired of Huxley whether it was through his grandfather or grandmother that he claimed descent from a monkey! Huxley then rose to the defence of Evolution, finishing his speech with the now legendary ‘put-down’ that he was not ashamed to have a monkey for his ancestor, but he would be ashamed to be connected with a man who used great gifts to obscure the truth! This debate saw many people come to accept Evolution. However, there was little support or enthusiasm for Darwin’s mechanism of Natural Selection.

11. While all this was going on, and unbeknown to the scientific elite in Britain, an Austrian monk called Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) was carrying out important experiments that would eventually prove that Darwin’s Natural Selection was in fact correct. For seven years, Mendel cross-bred different strains of pea plants to investigate how characteristics like the colour of the flowers got passed down the generations. In a quite amazing feat, he cultivated almost thirty thousand pea plants and in doing so figured out the basic principles of, what would later become known as, Genetics. He showed that offspring received characteristics from both parents, but only the dominant characteristic was expressed. This was contrary to the prevailing view at the time that the characteristics of both parents were somehow “blended” together. Unfortunately, Mendel’s work was overlooked by scientists in the West, only coming to light long after his death.

12. When Mendel’s work on Genetics was finally “re-discovered” in 1900, it started to make sense of evolution in a new way and stimulated renewed interest in Darwin’s work of fifty years earlier. Building on Mendel’s work, studies showed how genetic traits in a population of animals or plants could be selected by environmental pressures and how a population could become progressively adapted to its environment. This Modern Synthesis, as Julian Huxley called it, brought Darwin’s concept of Natural Selection right back to the centre of evolutionary theory, as we will see in the next part of the talk.

13. However, despite becoming universally accepted by the scientific community in the early 20th century, Evolution by Natural Selection continued to meet strong opposition by certain religious groups. This was especially true of Christian fundamentalists, who saw the concept as an erosion of God’s sovereignty. In 1925, the State of Tennessee, USA outlawed the teaching of Evolution completely. When one teacher, John Scopes, continued to teach evolution he was tried and found guilty in what is now infamously known as the “Scopes Monkey Trial”!

14. This religious opposition to Evolution has continued to the present day. However, today opposition to Evolution is often more subtle. For example several US states have recently argued that Evolution and Creationism should be given “equal time” in the Science classroom. Creationism maintains than a literal reading of the Book of Genesis in the Bible is the only adequate explanation for how Life came into being and that the concept of Evolution is incorrect. On the surface, this demand seems OK. After all, isn’t it fair to present both sides of the debate? Over the next few minutes, we’ll look at this issue at little more closely as we discuss this important question: should Creationism and Evolution should be given “equal time” in the Science classroom?

15. For More Info Please Refer PPT.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis PPT


Presentation Transcript:
1. Rheumatoid Arthritis

2. Goals
General Approach to Arthritis
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Diagnostic Criteria
Therapeutic Approach
Disease Severity and Course

3. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Definition
Progressive, systemic, inflammatory disorder
Unknown etiology
Characterized by
Symmetric synovitis
Joint erosions
Multisystem extra-articular manifestations

4. Epidemiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Approximately 1% of the total adult population is affected by RA
40% to 60% with advanced (functional class IV) RA will:
Survive 5 years or less following diagnosis
Die 10-15 years earlier than expected

5. Approach to Arthritis

6. Joint Pain
most common symptom
Pain (arthralgia) vs. Inflammation (arthritis)
heat, redness, pain, swelling, loss of function
inflammatory arthritis (RA, SLE) vs. pain syndrome (fibromyalgia)

7. Number of Joints Affected
Reactive Arthritis
OA: joint effusions
Autoimmune disease
Psoriasis, IBD, AS, Behçet's
Monoarticular causes
Viral infection
Acute Serum Sickness
Untreated Crystal-induced

8. Inflammatory vs. Non-Inflammatory
Inflammatory: i.e. RA
Generalized AM stiffness
> 30 min
Resolves with movement
Classic signs of inflammation

Non-Inflammatory: i.e. Osteoarthritis
Localized AM stiffness
< 30 min 9. Arthrocentesis Confirm diagnoses Differentiate between inflammatory & noninflammatory Therapeutic/Adjunct to Antibiotics Labs: cell count w/diff crystal analysis Gram stain & Culture WBC >2000/µL indicates inflammatory arthritis

Evaluate ligamentous & cartilaginous integrity
Infectioun: aspirate thick or loculated fluid

9. RA
Systemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder
~1% of population
Onset: 52 years
40-70 years of age
<60 - 3-5:1 female predominance

10. Genetics
Increased incidence among Pima & Chippewa Native American tribes (5%)
Genetic & Environmental

HLA-DRB1*0401 & HLA-DRB1*0404
Increased risk
Increased joint damage
Increased joint surgery

11. Pathophysiology

12. Immunology
Produce cytokines
Cytokines (TNF-α) cause systemic features
Release chemokines  recruit PMNs into synovial fluid/membrane

TNF-α & IL-1:
Proliferation of T cells
Activation of B cells
Initiates proinflammatory/joint-damaging processes

TH-1 cells:
Mediate disease processes
Activate B cells

B cells:
Release cytokines
Plasma cells that produce Ab

Bone erosion
Juxta-articular & Systemic osteoporosis

13. Pathophysiology
Swelling of Synovial lining

Rapid division/growth of cells = Pannus
Synovial thickening/hyperplasia
Inflammatory vascularized tissue
Generation of Metalloproteinases

Cytokine release
Infiltration of leukocytes
Change in cell-surface adhesion molecules & cytokines
Destruction of bone & cartilage

14. Bottom Line Proliferation Destruction of joints Disability

15. For more info please refer PPT. Thanks

Saturday, January 7, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On DVD Technology

PPT On DVD Technology


Presentation Transcript:
1. ‘DVD Technology’

2. Introduction
were looking for a disc that could contain, amongst other features, about 135 minutes of film on one side of a disc at superior quality to existing laserdiscs, copy protection, parental lock, widescreen.
Until 1996, two competing optical discs formats were being developed, but their development was merged in 1996 under the DVD Forum who produce the official DVD specifications.
What is DVD?
In the past, DVD has stood for 'Digital Versatile Disc' and 'Digital Video Disc', but now it is simply a word in itself. DVD is an optical storage technology for any information, such as video, audio,computer data and games. Although the DVD discs are similar in appearance to compact discs(CDs), the formats, physical specifications and file specifications are very different. This is explained in ‘DVD Introduction’. This document also provides information on authoring, features, disadvantages and user requirements on one of the main application Formats - DVD Vide. It also looks at what might be in store for DVD in the future and provides links to tutorials and other web pages which may be of interest.

3. DVD Formats
Physical Formats
Application Formats

4. Physical Formats
A DVD is an optical disc consisting of microscopic pits (called ‘marks’ on writeable discs). As the disc spins in the player, a laser beam passes over the disc and the changes in the intensity of the light reflected is converted into a digital signal. As the intensity of the reflected laser beam changes, this is converted into encoded digital signal.

A DVD disc consists of two substrates (0.6mm thick) bonded together. Each side can contain two layers called ‘Layer 0’ and ‘Layer 1’ (the outermost layer). The physical format of a DVD determines the capacity of the DVD disc. DVD capacity is determined by pit size, track pit spacing and the number of layers the disc contains. See below for a current list of discs and their capacities.

DVD-5 and DVD-9 are the most common formats in use. DVD-9 is best suited to DVD-Video running times longer than 133 minutes. DVD-10 is suitable for when letterbox and pan & scan versions are required on the same DVD-Video, however, if the playing time is long, the disc will need to be flipped over. DVD-14 is no longer a common format and DVD-18 is difficult to manufacture. Data can only be written once to a DVD-R disc and it is therefore often used for archiving purposes. DVD-R (G) is for general home use and DVD-R (A) is for authoring purposes (i.e. professional use). DVD-
RAM, DVD-RW and DVD+RW discs can be written to disc thousands of times.

5. Application Formats
DVD-ROM is the base format for all DVD formats. The main application formats are DVD-ROM, DVD- Video and DVD-Audio. A DVD disc can contain a combination of two or all three of these application formats.

If a DVD disc contains DVD-Video and DVD-ROM, a standalone DVD player will only read the DVD- Video portion, but most DVD-ROM drives can read the DVD-ROM and DVD-Video portions (if they are equipped with a DVD-Video decoder).

DVD-Read Only Memory (DVD-ROM) is similar to CD-ROM except that it can contain much more information. The reason DVD-ROM has evolved is to meet the needs of the computer industry which required a new format that could cope with the complex multimedia applications that are being developed.

DVD-ROM is used for high-speed data retrieval and is therefore suited to computer games and educational software. It is envisaged that DVD-ROM will eventually replace CD-ROM.

7. DVD-Video
DVD-Video is an application format of DVD-ROM. The objective of DVD-Video was to provide the film industry with a replacement for Laser Disc (LD). The industry wanted a disc that with a capacity of about 135 minutes (which would allow most movies to fit on a single disc), with video quality equivalent or greater than Laser Disc. In order to fit studio quality films onto DVD discs, some form of compression must be used. MPEG-2 is the standard form of compression used.
If studio quality film or video was transferred directly onto DVD-Video, it would create about 200Mb of data per second. The higher the data rate used, the higher the quality of sound and audio that is stored on the DVD.

8. Features
Superior picture quality to VHS
DVD-Video has 500 lines of horizontal resolution compared to VHS which has just 240, as long as the viewer has a screen that can accommodate the high resolution.
Superior sound quality to CD
On NTSC formats, the disc must have at least one soundtrack using Linear PCM or Dolby Digital. On PAL formats, the disc must have at least one soundtrack using Linear PCM, MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 or Dolby Digital. Up to 8 streams of Dolby Digital multi-channel audio or Linear PCM.

9. Features Contd.
Multiple Soundtracks/Languages
A DVD can contain alternative soundtracks (up to 8 tracks) or up to 4 languages (2 tracks per language).
Karaoke Track
This feature enables background video pictures overlaid with the lyrics of a song. Up to 32 subtitle or karaoke tracks are available.
Random access features
Random access features enables multiple endings for movies or games and quizzes to be created due to seamless branching.
Menus allow for greater user interactivity as the user can access the menu at any stage during playback.
Multiple Titles
The DVD-Video can contain more than one film or programme or different versions of the main feature.

10. Thanks

Friday, January 6, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Jeopardy

Jeopardy PPT


Presentation Transcript:
Jeopardy! is an American quiz show featuring trivia in history, literature, the arts, pop culture, science, sports, geography, wordplay, and more. The show has a unique answer-and-question format in which contestants are presented with clues in the form of answers, and must phrase their responses in question form.

PowerPoint Presentation On Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing PPT


Presentation Transcript:
1. Mobile Computing

2. Computer Science
The discipline of
Creating, and
Maintaining Computer Software

3. Why Mobile Computing ?

People are mobile
Devices are mobile

4. Goal of Wireless and Mobile Computing
“People and their machines should be able to access information and communicate with each other easily and securely, in any medium or combination of media –voice, data, image, video, or multimedia –anytime, anywhere, in a timely, cost-effective way.”

5. What is Mobility?
A person who moves
Between different geographical locations
Between different networks
Between different communication devices
Between different applications
A device that moves
Between different geographical locations
Between different networks

6. Mobile Computing Devices

7. Disconnected Operation
Offline feature
Use Friendly

8. Research Issues in Mobile Computing
• Wireless Communications
– Quality of connectivity
– Bandwidth limitations
• Mobility
– Location transparency
– Location dependency
• Portability
– Power limitations
– Display, processing, storage limitations

9. Wireless Communications
• Harsh communications environment:
– Lower bandwidth/higher latency:
good enough for videoconferencing?
– Higher error rates
– More frequent disconnection
– Performance depends on density of nearby users but inherent
scalability of cellular/frequency reuse architecture helps
• Connection/Disconnection
– Network failure is common
– Autonomous operation is highly desirable
» Caching is a good idea, e.g., web cache
– Asynchronous/spool-oriented applications, like mail or printing
» Trickle back data when bandwidth is available
– Disconnected file systems: CODA (CMU), Ficus (UCLA)

10. Wireless Communications Contd..
• Low Bandwidth
– Orders of magnitude differences between wide-area, in-
building wireless
• Variable Bandwidth
– Applications adaptation to changing quality of
» High bandwidth, low latency: business as usual
» High bandwidth, high latency: aggressive prefetching
» Low bandwidth, high latency: asynchronous
operation, use caches to hide latency, predict future
references/trickle in, etc. etc.
• Heterogeneous Networks
– “Vertical Handoff” among colocated wireless networks

11. Wireless Communications
• Security Concerns
– Authentication is critical
» Normal network point of attachment is a wall tap
» Wireless access makes network attachment too easy
– Exposure to over-the-air wiretapping
» Any transmitter can also be a receiver!
» Some wireless networks provide secure airlinks
(e.g., CDPD)
» Made more difficult by spread spectrum technologies

12. Mobility
• Address Migration
– Existing applications send packets to a fixed network
– Need to support dynamically changing “local” addresses
as mobile device moves through network
– Mobile IP specification: home environment tracks mobile
device’s current location through registration procedure
– Route optimization: exploit local caches of
– Location updates:
» Forwarding
» Hierarchical mobility agents
– Other routing issues: e.g., multicast

13. Mobility Contd..
• Location Dependent Services
– Discovery: What services exist in my local environment?
e.g., printers, file and compute services, special local
applications, etc.
– Follow me services: “Route calls to my current location,”
“Migrate my workstation desktop to the nearest
workstation screen”
– Information services:
» Broadcast/“push” information (e.g., “Flight 59 will
depart from Gate 23”)
» “Pull” information (e.g., “What gate will Flight 59
depart from?”)
– Service migration: computations, caches, state, etc.
follow mobile device as it moves through the network
– Privacy: what applications can track user locations?

14. Portability
• Low Power
– Limited compute performance
– Low quality displays
• Loss of Data
– Easily lost
– Must be conceived as being “network-integrated”
• Small User Interface
– Limited real estate for keyboards
– Icon intensive/handwriting/speech
• Small Local Storage
– Flash memory rather than disk drive

15. Portability Issues
• It’s the power, stupid!!
• Batteries
– Weight, volume determine lifetime
» 20 W-hrs per pound
» 2 pounds, 10 hours = 2 W power consumption!
– Power consumption: CV2ƒ
» Reduce C by increased VLSI integration and MCM
» Reduce V to lower operating voltages: 5 V to 3.3V to
2.5V and below
» Reduce ƒ by reducing clock frequency, standby and
suspend power modes
» Intelligent operation: spin-down disk drives

16. Putting It All Together: Concepts in Mobile Computing
• Identification
– Subscriber mobility: 700 phone number
– Terminal mobility: mobile phone # or IP address
– Application mobility
• Registration
– Authentication: who are you?
– Authorization: what can you do?
– Allocation: how much will I give you?
• Call/Connection Establishment
– Mobile Routing: Mobile IP, Cellular System HLR/VLR
– Resource Reservations: Reserve channels in advance
– Location Update: forward vs. hierarchy

17. Putting It All Together: Concepts in Mobile Computing Contd..
• Mobility
– Handoff: when to do it, choice of network
– Process Migration: application support infrastructure that
follows the mobile
• Privacy and Security
– Authentication
– Authorization
– Encryption: over-the-air security

18. Thanks

Thursday, January 5, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Motivation And Stress Management Training

PPT On Motivation And Stress Management Training


Related PPTs:

2. Stress Management Training
Stress Management Training Courses
Improves Work Efficiency,
Interpersonal Relations, &
Brings about other Positive Results

in due course of time .

3. A Man's Got to Know His Limitations
Knowing yourself and your limits may be the most important way to manage stress effectively.

4. Make the new year happy
Now is the time to start thinking about what you would like your life to be like,
you could just change a few things—or
even just one!

5. Definition of stress
There has been No definition of stress that
everyone accepts.
Therefore, it's difficult to MEASURES stress .
People have very different ideas with respect
to their definition of stress .



Find out what is causing stress in your life.
Look for ways to reduce the amount of stress in your life.
Learn healthy ways to relieve stress or reduce its harmful effects.

8. What Is Stress 1
Stress is defined as the force, pressure or strain exerted upon a material, object or a person, which resists these forces and to maintain its original state

“By nature we are friendly, cooperative, compassionate. If we are unfriendly, it is because of stress and tension”

In this busy life, increasing pressure to achieve more in short time span .

11. Symptoms of Stress-2
Physical 2 Mental 3 Emotional 4 Behavioral

12. Physical
Mentally tiers, headache, Mentaly Absentness muscle pain / especially neck, shoulders and low back, heart trble, chest pains, abdominal pain, cold,, and frequent colds.

13. Mental
Decrease in concentration and memory, indecisiveness, mind racing or going blank, confusion, loss of sense of humor.

14. Emotional
Anxiety, nervousness, depression, anger, worry, fear, irritability, short temper.

15. Behavioral
Nervous habits (nail-biting, foot-tapping), increased eating, smoking, drinking, crying, yelling bagasu, and even throwing things or hitting FEAR

16. What Are the Causes of Stress? -3
There are two kinds of stress

17. External stressors
Physical environment
Major life events
Daily hassles

18. Causes of Stress
Physical environment: Increased Urbanization, Noise, Bright lights, Heat,congested spaces.
Social: Rudeness, Bossiness or Aggressiveness on the part of someone else, seclusion from society.
Organizational: Rules, Regulations,
Major life events: Death of a relative, Loss of job.
Daily hassles: Neighborhood problems, misplacing keys, mechanical breakdowns of equipment etc.

19. Internal stressors
Lifestyle choices
Negative self-talk:

20. For More Please Refer Our PPT

Wednesday, January 4, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Loopholes In Windows

Loopholes In Windows PPT


1. Security at the Operating System Level (Microsoft)

2. Outline
Why need security at the OS level?
Security features/concerns of Microsoft Windows NT.
Security provided by Microsoft Windows 2000.
“Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows” by Microsoft .

3. Why need security at the OS level?
No more standalone computer system environments.
Any system can be globally accessible through a set of vast inter and intra-network connections.
Transition motivated by the need to work remotely, convenience in accessing personal records, online shopping etc.

4. Why need security at the OS level? (contd.)
Convenience and efficiency with increased security risks.
Trust computers more than our life partners.
A single security loophole in the OS design known to a malicious attacker could do serious damage.

5. Security Model of Microsoft Windows NT
Access Tokens: Evidence that the a user successfully logged-in.
Security Descriptors: Represent access rights of a logged-in user.
Object Manager: Reads the security descriptors and passes on the information to the Security Reference Monitor (SRM). SRM determines whether a user’s action is legal or illegal.

6. Security features of Microsoft Windows NT
- Allows system administrators to set global or very specific file access permissions.
- Sets up a virtual root directory to
prevent network users from accessing
higher nodes in the system.

7. Security features of Microsoft Windows NT (contd.)
Minimum password length and frequent password change requirements.
Multiple levels of privilege, unlike UNIX.
Challenge-response scheme for authentication purposes during user log-on attempt.

8. Loopholes in Microsoft Windows NT Security Model
Assumes a logged-in user is a legal user.
Networking environment uses some old out-of-date protocols (such as NetBEUI, DLC).
Use of non-standard implementations of security protocols. For example, Microsoft's implementation of PPTP.
Obvious relationships between clear text passwords and hash values. Tools like l0phtcrack can exploit this vulnerability.

9. Security features of Microsoft Windows 2000
Technology based on Windows NT.
Designed to address the security loopholes of Windows NT.
New Security features included with Windows 2000: Active Directory, ACLs for both the users and resources, Encrypting File System, Kerberos, Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), PKI.

10. Kerberos
Windows 2000 replaces the NT LAN Manager with Kerberos version 5.
Network authentication protocol.
Involves the participation of two principals and a trusted third party called Key Distribution Center (KDC).
Uses symmetric key encryption. KDC provides the shared key for each session.

11. Kerberos (contd.)
Scenario 1: A principle is trying to log-on to his/her workstation.
Scenario 2: A principle wants to communicate with another principle.

12. Encrypting File System (EFS)
EFS is integrated with NTFS version 5.
Allows Windows 2000 users to encrypt their files and folders.
Encrypting a folder encrypts all the subfolders and files in that folder.
Cannot be used to encrypt system files.
A user needs to know the key to decrypt a file, log-in password not enough.

13. EFS (contd.)
Uses Public Key Encryption.
Initial version uses DES as the encryption algorithm.
Randomly generated File Encryption Key
(FEK) used for encryption.
Users/Recovery Agents encrypt the FEK using their public key and decrypt using their private key.

14. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
Primary components of Windows 2000 PKI are:
Certificate Services: Businesses act as their own Certificate Authorities (CAs).
Active Directory directory service: Store information about the network and used to publish keys.
PKI enabled applications.
Exchange Key Management Service (KMS): Used to manage email encryption keys.

15. PKI (contd.)
Includes typical components of a PKI: CA, and Sub-CA.
Certificates are compliant with ITU-TX.508 standard.
Supports standard security protocols like IPSec, PKINIT, PC/SC etc. Enhances interoperability.
Users now have the capability of mixing public and private CAs in their environment.

16. “Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows”
New set of features for a future operating system – previously codenamed “Palladium”
Promises to provide greater security, enhanced personal privacy, and system integrity.
Applications that would make use of “Palladium’s” security features are codenamed “Trusted Agents.”

17. “Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows” (contd.)
“Palladium” enabled systems would offer the following security features:
Protected Memory: Hide and protect the pages of main memory being used by a “Trusted Agent.”
Attestation: Data signed by a “Trusted Agent” to prove its authenticity.
Sealed Storage: The ability of a “Trusted Agent” to store data securely.
Secure input and output: Guarantee a trusted path from the input devices to a “Trusted Agent” and from a “Trusted Agent” to the output devices.

18. “Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows” (contd.)
“Palladium” requires both hardware and software support to implement the security features.
Hardware Support
To provide trusted space in memory.
To implement the sealed storage security feature.
Intel has already scheduled the release of its Prescott processor enabled with Le-Grande technology to provide hardware support.

19. “Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows” (contd.)
Software Support
Nexus (formerly codenamed “Trusted Operating Root”)
Technology to be used by the OS to provide trust functionality.
Executes in Kernel mode alongside “Trusted Agents” that execute in user mode.
Provides the APIs that the “Trusted Agents” can use to communicate with Nexus.

20. “Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows” (contd.)
Software Support (contd.)
“Trusted Agents”
User applications that can make use of “Palladium’s” security features.
Execute in the user mode in trusted space.
Call Nexus when need to make use of some security feature.
Able to store secrets using sealed storage and authenticate themselves using attestation.

21. “Next Generation Secure Computing Base for Windows” (contd.)
Protection against virus attacks
Still need anti-virus software to catch a virus
If the anti-virus software is a “Trusted Agent,” then “Palladium” makes sure it executes in secure environment and infected code doesn’t affect it.
File encryption
Files encrypted using system specific secrets cryptographically locked into hardware.
Files useless if maliciously copied or tampered with.

22. Conclusion
High security promises prompt consumers to store important and private data carelessly.
No matter how high OS security promises are, someone’s always out there to break them.
An example is the Code-Red worm that hammered the Windows 2000 users by manipulating a loophole in IIS 4.0 and 5.0.

23. Thanks.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On WI-FI

WI-FI Technology PPT


1. Wi-Fi Wireless Communications
Sheldon Lou

2. What is Wi-Fi?
The standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs). It’s like a common language that all the devices use to communicate to each other. If you have a standard, people can make all sorts of devices that can work with each other.
It’s actually IEEE 802.11, a family of standards. The IEEE (Eye-triple-E, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.) is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 360,000 individual members in approximately 175 countries. The Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance started the Wi-Fi--wireless fidelity--certification program to ensure that equipment claiming 802.11 compliance was genuinely interoperable.

3. US Frequency Bands
Band Frequency range
UHF ISM 902-928 MHz
S-Band 2-4 GHz
S-Band ISM 2.4-2.5 GHz
C-Band 4-8 GHz
C-Band satellite downlink 3.7-4.2 GHz
C-Band Radar (weather) 5.25-5.925 GHz
C-Band ISM 5.725-5.875 GHz
C-Band satellite uplink 5.925-6.425 GHz
X-Band 8-12 GHz
X-Band Radar (police/weather) 8.5-10.55 GHz

4. Standard Speed Freq band Notes
802.11 2 Mbps 2.4 GHz (1997) 802.11a 54 Mbps 5 GHz (1999) 802.11b 11 Mbps 2.4 GHz 802.11g 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz

5. ISM Band
ISM stands for industrial, scientific, and medical. ISM bands are set aside for equipment that is related to industrial or scientific processes or is used by medical equipment. Perhaps the most familiar ISM-band device is the microwave oven, which operates in the 2.4-GHz ISM band. The ISM bands are license-free, provided that devices are low-power. You don't need a license to set up and operate a wireless network.

6. WLAN Architecture—Ad Hoc Mode
Ad-Hoc mode: Peer-to-peer setup where clients can connect to each other directly. Generally not used for business networks.

7. Ad Hoc Structure
Mobile stations communicate to each other directly.
It’s set up for a special purpose and for a short period of time. For example, the participants of a meeting in a conference room may create an ad hoc network at the beginning of the meeting and dissolve it when the meeting ends.

8. WLAN Architecture--Mesh
Mesh: Every client in the network also acts as an access or relay point, creating a “self-healing” and (in theory) infinitely extensible network.
Not yet in widespread use, unlikely to be in homes.

9. Infrastructure network
There is an Access Point (AP), which becomes the hub of a “star topology.”
Any communication has to go through AP. If a Mobile Station (MS), like a computer, a PDA, or a phone, wants to communicate with another MS, it needs to send the information to AP first, then AP sends it to the destination MS
Multiple APs can be connected together and handle a large number of clients.
Used by the majority of WLANs in homes and businesses.

10. Roaming
In an extended service area, a mobile station (MS) can roam from one BSS (Basic Service Set) to another.
Roughly speaking, the MS keeps checking the beacon signal sent by each AP and select the strongest one and connect to that AP.
If the BSSs overlap, the connection will not be interrupted when an MS moves from one set to another. If not, the service will be interrupted.
Two BSSs coverage areas can largely overlap to increase the capacity for a particular area. If so, the two access points will use different channels, as we will explain later.

11. Antennas
All WLAN equipment comes with a built-in omni-directional antenna, but some select products will let you attach secondary antennas that will significantly boost range.

12. Antennas, continued
Antennas come in all shapes and styles:
Vertical Whip
Ceiling mount
Yagi (“Pringles can”)
Wall mounted panel
Parabolic dish

13. How Can Several Users Communicate Simultaneously?
As we have discussed, there is a difference between a network designed for voice conversation and one for data exchange.
For voice conversations, like telephone and cell phone calls, each person has a dedicated channel during the entire conversation. (3G and 4G cell phones are somewhat different, as we will explain later.)
For data exchange, many users can share one channel. A user sends information when no one else is sending.
New technologies try to accommodate both voice and data transmissions, as we will discuss in this course.

14. Share one channel in data communication
In data communication, data are grouped into packets/frames. Each packet/frame contains a number of bits of information.
Devices (phones, computers, etc.) don’t communicate simultaneously. It’s like they are sharing one single cable (the air in this case), only one person can use it at one time.
Before an MS (mobile station) sends its packets, it checks to see if someone else is sending information. Only when the medium is free can an MS sends packets.
If some station is sending or receiving signal, the MS that intends to send will generate a random waiting time and wait for its turn. If several MSs are all waiting for their turns, since their waiting times are randomly generated and thus not equal, they will not start sending simultaneously. Thus collision (two or more MSs sending signals simultaneously) is avoided.
It’s called Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA).

15. RTS/CTS (Request-to-send/clear-to-send)
Use Request-to-send/clear-to-send (RTS/CTS) mechanism (p. 191-192, Fig. 4.17 & p. 462, Fig. 11.14) to avoid collision when two MSs cannot hear each other (blocked by a wall …).
A terminal ready for transmission sends an RTS packet identifying the source address, destination address, and the length of the data to be sent.
The destination station responds with CTS packet.
The source terminal receives the CTS and sends the data.
Other terminals go to the virtual carrier-sensing mode (NAV signal on), therefore the source terminal sends its packet with no contention.
After completion of the transmission, the destination station sends an ACK, opening contention for other users.

16. WiMax

17. What is WiMax?
WiMax is a radio technology that promises to deliver two-way Internet access at speeds of up to 75 Mbps at long range.

Its backers claim that WiMax can transmit data up to 30 miles between broadcast towers and can blanket areas more than a mile in radius with bandwidth that exceeds current DSL and cable broadband capabilities.

So, some believe that it could slash the cost of bringing broadband to remote areas.

18. WiMax (Cont’d)
WiMax, short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is the latest of the wireless "last mile" broadband technologies.

ISP see WiMax as a means of connecting rural or remote areas with broadband service, something that would be technically, physically or economically difficult to do by burying wire for DSL or cable connections.

Laying wires is especially difficult in hilly areas like Susquehanna.

19. Benefits over Satellite
In rural areas, the real competition to WiMax would be satellite data services.

The benefit that WiMax offers over satellite is that satellite offers limited uplink bandwidth (upload data rates are not as high as download data rates).

Further, satellite suffers with high latency.

20. Thanks

Monday, January 2, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Denial Of Service Attack

DOS Attack PPT


1. Denial of Service Attacks

2. What Are DDoS Tools?
Clog victim’s network.
Use many sources (“daemons”) for attacking traffic.
Use “master” machines to control the daemon attackers.
At least 4 different versions in use: TFN, TFN2K, Trinoo, Stacheldraht.

3. Definition
Denial-of-service (DoS) attack aims at disrupting the authorized use of networks, systems, or applications
by sending messages which exhaust service provider’s resources ( network bandwidth, system resources, application resources)
Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks employ multiple (dozens to millions) compromised computers to perform a coordinated and widely distributed DoS attack
Victims of (D)DoS attacks
service-providers (in terms of time, money, resources, good will)
legitimate service-seekers (deprived of availability of service itself)
Zombie systems(Penultimate and previous layers of compromised systems in DDoS)

4. Analyzing the goal of DoS attacks
A (D)DoS attack is different in goal : iWar, in short
Just deny availability
Can work on any port left open
No intention for stealing/theft of information
Although, in the process of denying service to/from victim, Zombie systems may be hijacked

5. Who? What for?
The ulterior motive
Earlier attacks were proofs of concepts or simple pranks
Pseudo-supremacy feeling (of defaulters) upon denying services in large scale to normal people
DoS attacks on Internet chat channel moderators
Eye-for-eye attitude
Political disagreements
Competitive edge
Major lack of data on perpetrators and motives
Levels of attackers
Highly proficient attackers who are rarely identified or caught

6. Why should we care?
As per 2006 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey
25% of respondents faced some form of DoS attacks in previous 12 months. This value varied from 25% to 40% over the course of time
DoS attacks are the 5th most costly form of attacks
A DoS attack is not just missing out on the latest sports scores or Tweets or weather reports
Internet is now a critical resource whose disruption has financial implications, or even dire consequences on human safety
Cybercrime and cyberwarfare might use of DoS or DDoS as a potential weapon to disrupt or degrade critical infrastructure
DDoS attacks are a major threat to the stability of the Internet

7. Fast facts
In Feb 2000, series of massive DoS attacks incapacitated several high-visibility Internet e-commerce sites, including Yahoo, Ebay and E*trade
In Jan 2001, Microsoft’s name sever infrastructure was disabled
98% legitimate users could not get to any Microsoft’s servers
In Sept 2001, an attack by a UK-based teenager on the port of Houston’s Web server, made weather and scheduling information unavailable
No ships could dock at the world’s 8th busiest maritime facility due to lack of weather and scheduling information
Entire network performance was affected
In Oct 2002, all Domain Name System servers were attacked
Attack lasted only an hour
9 of the 13 servers were seriously affected
In Aug 2009, the attack on Twitter and Facebook

8. How They Talk
Trinoo: attacker uses TCP; masters and daemons use UDP; password authentication.
TFN: attacker uses shell to invoke master; masters and daemons use ICMP ECHOREPLY.
Stacheldraht: attacker uses encrypted TCP connection to master; masters and daemons use TCP and ICMP ECHO REPLY; rcp used for auto-update.

9. Deploying DDOS
Attackers seem to use standard, well-known holes (i.e., rpc.ttdbserver, amd, rpc.cmsd, rpc.mountd, rpc.statd).
They appear to have “auto-hack” tools – point, click, and invade.
Lesson: practice good computer hygiene.

10. Detecting DDOS Tools
Most current IDS’s detect the current generation of tools.
They work by looking for DDOS control messages.
Naturally, these will change over time; in particular, more such messages will be properly encrypted. (A hacker PKI?)

11. What are the Strong Defenses?
There aren’t any…

12. What Can ISPs Do?
Deploy source address anti-spoof filters (very important!).
Turn off directed broadcasts.
Develop security relationships with neighbor ISPs.
Set up mechanism for handling customer security complaints.
Develop traffic volume monitoring techniques.

13. Traffic Volume Monitoring
Look for too much traffic to a particular destination.
Learn to look for traffic to that destination at your border routers (access routers, peers, exchange points, etc.).
Can we automate the tools – too many queue drops on an access router will trigger source detection?

14. Can We Do Better Some Day?
ICMP Traceback message.
Enhance newer congestion control techniques, i.e., RED.
Warning – both of these are untested ideas. The second is a research topic.

15. ICMP Traceback
For a very few packets (about 1 in 20,000), each router will send the destination a new ICMP message indicating the previous hop for that packet.
Net traffic increase at endpoint is about .1% -- probably acceptable.
Issues: authentication, loss of traceback packets, load on routers.

16. Enhanced Congestion Control
Define an attack as “too many packets drops on a particular access line”.
Send upstream node a message telling it to drop more packets for this destination.
Traditional RED+penalty box works on flows; this works on destination alone.
Issues: authentication, fairness, effect on legitimate traffic, implementability, etc.


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