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Friday, January 6, 2012

PowerPoint Presentation On Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing PPT


Presentation Transcript:
1. Mobile Computing

2. Computer Science
The discipline of
Creating, and
Maintaining Computer Software

3. Why Mobile Computing ?

People are mobile
Devices are mobile

4. Goal of Wireless and Mobile Computing
“People and their machines should be able to access information and communicate with each other easily and securely, in any medium or combination of media –voice, data, image, video, or multimedia –anytime, anywhere, in a timely, cost-effective way.”

5. What is Mobility?
A person who moves
Between different geographical locations
Between different networks
Between different communication devices
Between different applications
A device that moves
Between different geographical locations
Between different networks

6. Mobile Computing Devices

7. Disconnected Operation
Offline feature
Use Friendly

8. Research Issues in Mobile Computing
• Wireless Communications
– Quality of connectivity
– Bandwidth limitations
• Mobility
– Location transparency
– Location dependency
• Portability
– Power limitations
– Display, processing, storage limitations

9. Wireless Communications
• Harsh communications environment:
– Lower bandwidth/higher latency:
good enough for videoconferencing?
– Higher error rates
– More frequent disconnection
– Performance depends on density of nearby users but inherent
scalability of cellular/frequency reuse architecture helps
• Connection/Disconnection
– Network failure is common
– Autonomous operation is highly desirable
» Caching is a good idea, e.g., web cache
– Asynchronous/spool-oriented applications, like mail or printing
» Trickle back data when bandwidth is available
– Disconnected file systems: CODA (CMU), Ficus (UCLA)

10. Wireless Communications Contd..
• Low Bandwidth
– Orders of magnitude differences between wide-area, in-
building wireless
• Variable Bandwidth
– Applications adaptation to changing quality of
» High bandwidth, low latency: business as usual
» High bandwidth, high latency: aggressive prefetching
» Low bandwidth, high latency: asynchronous
operation, use caches to hide latency, predict future
references/trickle in, etc. etc.
• Heterogeneous Networks
– “Vertical Handoff” among colocated wireless networks

11. Wireless Communications
• Security Concerns
– Authentication is critical
» Normal network point of attachment is a wall tap
» Wireless access makes network attachment too easy
– Exposure to over-the-air wiretapping
» Any transmitter can also be a receiver!
» Some wireless networks provide secure airlinks
(e.g., CDPD)
» Made more difficult by spread spectrum technologies

12. Mobility
• Address Migration
– Existing applications send packets to a fixed network
– Need to support dynamically changing “local” addresses
as mobile device moves through network
– Mobile IP specification: home environment tracks mobile
device’s current location through registration procedure
– Route optimization: exploit local caches of
– Location updates:
» Forwarding
» Hierarchical mobility agents
– Other routing issues: e.g., multicast

13. Mobility Contd..
• Location Dependent Services
– Discovery: What services exist in my local environment?
e.g., printers, file and compute services, special local
applications, etc.
– Follow me services: “Route calls to my current location,”
“Migrate my workstation desktop to the nearest
workstation screen”
– Information services:
» Broadcast/“push” information (e.g., “Flight 59 will
depart from Gate 23”)
» “Pull” information (e.g., “What gate will Flight 59
depart from?”)
– Service migration: computations, caches, state, etc.
follow mobile device as it moves through the network
– Privacy: what applications can track user locations?

14. Portability
• Low Power
– Limited compute performance
– Low quality displays
• Loss of Data
– Easily lost
– Must be conceived as being “network-integrated”
• Small User Interface
– Limited real estate for keyboards
– Icon intensive/handwriting/speech
• Small Local Storage
– Flash memory rather than disk drive

15. Portability Issues
• It’s the power, stupid!!
• Batteries
– Weight, volume determine lifetime
» 20 W-hrs per pound
» 2 pounds, 10 hours = 2 W power consumption!
– Power consumption: CV2ƒ
» Reduce C by increased VLSI integration and MCM
» Reduce V to lower operating voltages: 5 V to 3.3V to
2.5V and below
» Reduce ƒ by reducing clock frequency, standby and
suspend power modes
» Intelligent operation: spin-down disk drives

16. Putting It All Together: Concepts in Mobile Computing
• Identification
– Subscriber mobility: 700 phone number
– Terminal mobility: mobile phone # or IP address
– Application mobility
• Registration
– Authentication: who are you?
– Authorization: what can you do?
– Allocation: how much will I give you?
• Call/Connection Establishment
– Mobile Routing: Mobile IP, Cellular System HLR/VLR
– Resource Reservations: Reserve channels in advance
– Location Update: forward vs. hierarchy

17. Putting It All Together: Concepts in Mobile Computing Contd..
• Mobility
– Handoff: when to do it, choice of network
– Process Migration: application support infrastructure that
follows the mobile
• Privacy and Security
– Authentication
– Authorization
– Encryption: over-the-air security

18. Thanks

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