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Monday, August 12, 2013

PPT On Power And Politics


Power And Politics Presentation Transcript:
1.Power & Politics
Conflicts & Negotiations

2.A Definition of PowerPower
A capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes.
B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.

3.Contrasting Leadership and Power

4.Formal Power
Is established by an individual’s position in an organization; conveys the ability to coerce or reward, from formal authority, or from control of information.

5.Legitimate Power
The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.
Information Power
Power that comes from access to and control over information.

6.Referent Power
Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits.
Charismatic Power
An extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style.

7.Political Behavior
Activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages or disadvantages within the organization.
Legitimate Political Behavior Normal everyday politics.
Illegitimate Political Behavior Extreme political behavior that violates the implied rules of the game.

8.Politics Is in the Eye of the Beholder

9.Factors That Influence Political Behaviors

10.Conflict Defined
Is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.
Is that point in an ongoing activity when an interaction “crosses over” to become an interparty conflict.
Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizations
Incompatibility of goals
Differences over interpretations of facts
Disagreements based on behavioral expectations

11.Traditional View of Conflict
The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.

12.Human Relations View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.
Interactionist View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.

13.Functional Conflict
Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.

14.Task Conflict
Conflicts over content and goals of the work.
Relationship Conflict
Conflict based on interpersonal relationships.
Process Conflict
Conflict over how work gets done.

A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.
The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement.

PPT On Leadership And Trust


Leadership And Trust Presentation Transcript:
1.Leadership & Trust

2.What Is Leadership?Leadership
The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.
Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members.

3.Traits Theories of Leadership
Theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations.
Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.
Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits.
Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.

5.Behavioral Theories of Leadership
Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.

6.Employee-Oriented Leader
Emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.
Production-Oriented Leader
One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job.

7.Path-Goal Theory
The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

A positive expectation that another will not—through words, actions, or decisions—act opportunistically.
Trust is a history-dependent process (familiarity) based on relevant but limited samples of experience (risk).

honesty and truthfulness.
an individual’s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills.
an individual’s reliability, predictability, and good judgment in handling situations.

10.Deterrence-based Trust
Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated.

11.Mistrust drives out trust.
Trust begets trust.
Growth often masks mistrust.
Decline or downsizing tests the highest levels of trust.
Trust increases cohesion.
Mistrusting groups self-destruct.
Mistrust generally reduces productivity.

A way to use language to manage meaning.

13.Transactional Leaders
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.
Transformational Leaders
Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation, and who possess charisma.

14.Contingent Reward: Contracts exchange of rewards for effort, promises rewards for good performance, recognizes accomplishments.
Management by Exception (active): Watches and searches for deviations from rules and standards, takes corrective action.
Management by Exception (passive): Intervenes only if standards are not met.
Laissez-Faire: Abdicates responsibilities, avoids making decisions.

15.Charisma: Provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride, gains respect and trust.
Inspiration: Communicates high expectations, uses symbols to focus efforts, expresses important purposes in simple ways.
Intellectual Stimulation: Promotes intelligence, rationality, and careful problem solving.
Individualized Consideration: Gives personal attention, treats each employee individually, coaches, advises.

PPT On Functions of Communication


Functions of Communication Presentation Transcript:

The transference and the understanding of meaning.
Communication Functions
Control member behavior.
Foster motivation for what is to be done.
Provide a release for emotional expression.
Provide information needed to make decisions.

3.Elements of the Communication ProcessThe sender
The message
The channel
The receiver

The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver.
Types of Channels
Formal Channels
Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members.
Informal Channels
Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.

5.Oral Communication
Advantages: Speed and feedback.
Disadvantage: Distortion of the message.
Written Communication
Advantages: Tangible and verifiable.
Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback.
Nonverbal Communication
Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings.
Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message.

Grapevine Characteristics
Informal, not controlled by management.
Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications.
Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it.
Results from:
Desire for information about important situations
Ambiguous conditions
Conditions that cause anxiety

7.Computer-Aided Communication
Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution.
Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal.
Instant messaging
Advantage: “real time” e-mail transmitted straight to the receiver’s desktop.
Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.

A private organization-wide information network.
An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners.
An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links.

9.Knowledge Management
A process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time.

10.Channel Richness
The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode.

A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver.
Selective Perception
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Information Overload
A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.

How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted.
Words have different meanings to different people.
Communication Apprehension
Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.

13.Communication Barriers Between Men and Women

14.High-Context Cultures
Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication.
Low-Context Cultures
Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.

PPT On Group And Team


Group And Team Presentation Transcript:
1.Group & Team

Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.

3.Command Group
A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.
Task Group
Those working together to complete a job or task.

4.Why People Join Groups
Goal Achievement

5.An Alternative Model: Temporary Groups with Deadlines
Punctuated-Equilibrium Model
Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity.

6.The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model

A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
Role Identity
Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role.
Role Perception
An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.

8.Psychological Contract
An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa.

Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.

A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.

11.Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference
A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.

12.Why Have Teams Become So Popular
Teams typically outperform individuals.
Teams use employee talents better.
Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.
Teams facilitate employee involvement.
Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivation.

13.Problem-Solving Teams
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment.
Self-Managed Work Teams
Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.

14.Cross-Functional Teams
Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.

15.Virtual Teams
Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.

PPT On Basic Concepts of Motivation


Basic Concepts of Motivation Presentation Transcript:
1.Basic Concepts of Motivation & Management BY Objectives

The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.

3.Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

4.Theory X
Assumes that employees dislike work, lack ambition, avoid responsibility, and must be directed and coerced to perform.
Theory Y
Assumes that employees like work, seek responsibility, are capable of making decisions, and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal.

5.Goal-Setting Theory
The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.
Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship:
Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.
The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task.

6.Management by Objectives (MBO)
A program that encompasses specific goals, participative set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress.

7.Why MBO’s Fail
Unrealistic expectations about MBO results
Lack of commitment by top management
Failure to allocate reward properly
Cultural incompatibilities

8.Employee Recognition Programs
Types of programs
Personal attention
Expressing interest
Appreciation for a job well done
Benefits of programs
Fulfill employees’ desire for recognition.
Encourages repetition of desired behaviors.
Enhance group/team cohesiveness and motivation.
Encourages employee suggestions for improving processes and cutting costs.

9.What is Employee Involvement?
Employee Involvement Program
A participative process that uses the entire capacity of employees and is designed to encourage increased commitment to the organization’s success.
Participative Management
A process in which subordinates share a significant degree of decision-making power with their immediate superiors.

10.Job Design and Scheduling
Job Rotation
The periodic shifting of a worker from one task to another.
Job Enlargement
The horizontal expansion of jobs.
Job Enrichment
The vertical expansion of jobs.


12.Variable Pay Programs
A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organization measure of performance.
 Piece rate pay plans
 Profit sharing plans
 Gain sharing plans   

13.Piece-rate Pay Plans
Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed.
Profit-Sharing Plans
Organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability.
Gain Sharing
An incentive plan in which improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.

14.Pay levels are based on how many skills employees have or how many jobs they can do.
Benefits of Skill-based Pay Plans:
Provides staffing flexibility.
Facilitates communication across the organization.
Lessens “protection of territory” behaviors.
Meets the needs of employees for advancement (without promotion).
Leads to performance improvements.

15.Drawbacks of Skill-based Pay Plans:
Lack of additional learning opportunities that will increase employee pay.
Continuing to pay employees for skills that have become obsolete.
Paying for skills which are of no immediate use to the organization.
Paying for a skill, not for the level of employee performance for the particular skill.

PPT On Perception And Individual Decision Making


Perception And Individual Decision Making Presentation Transcript:
1.Perception & Individual Decision Making

2.What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important?
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.

3.Person Perception: Making Judgments About OthersAttribution Theory
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused.

4.Errors and Biases in Attributions
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others.
Self-Serving Bias
The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.

5.Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others
Selective Perception : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes.
Halo Effect : Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic.
Contrast Effects : Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics

6.Projection: Attributing one’s own characteristics to other people.
Stereotyping:  Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs.

7.Employment Interview
Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants.
Performance Expectations
Self-fulfilling prophecy (pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities.
Ethnic Profiling
A form of stereotyping in which a group of individuals is singled out—typically on the basis of race or ethnicity—for intensive inquiry, scrutinizing, or investigation.

8.Performance Evaluations
Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance.
Employee Effort
Assessment of individual effort is a subjective judgment subject to perceptual distortion and bias.

9.The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making

10.Assumptions of the Rational Decision-Making Model
Rational Decision- Making Model
Describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome.

11.How/Why problems are identified
Visibility over importance of problem
Attention-catching, high profile problems
Desire to “solve problems”
Self-interest (if problem concerns decision maker)
Alternative Development
Satisfying: seeking the first alternative that solves problem.
Engaging in incremental rather than unique problem solving through successive limited comparison of alternatives to the current alternative in effect.

12.Common Biases and Errors
Overconfidence Bias
Believing too much in our own decision competencies.
Anchoring Bias
Fixating on early, first received information.
Confirmation Bias
Using only the facts that support our decision.
Availability Bias
Using information that is most readily at hand.
Representative Bias
Assessing the likelihood of an occurrence by trying to match it with a preexisting category.

13.Escalation of Commitment
Increasing commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information.
Randomness Error
Trying to create meaning out of random events by falling prey to a false sense of control or superstitions.
Hindsight Bias
Falsely believing to have accurately predicted the outcome of an event, after that outcome is actually known.

14.Organizational Constraints on Decision Makers
Performance Evaluation
Evaluation criteria influence the choice of actions.
Reward Systems
Decision makers make action choices that are favored by the organization.
Formal Regulations
Organizational rules and policies limit the alternative choices of decision makers.
System-imposed Time Constraints
Organizations require decisions by specific deadlines.
Historical Precedents
Past decisions influence current decisions.

15.Ways to Improve Decision Making
Analyze the situation and adjust your decision making style to fit the situation.
Be aware of biases and try to limit their impact.
Combine rational analysis with intuition to increase decision-making effectiveness.
Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate to every situation.
Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using analogies.

PPT On Personality And Emotion


Personality And Emotion Presentation Transcript:
1.Organizational Behavior

2.What is Personality?
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.

3.The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.

4.The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions

5.Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
Locus of control
Risk taking
Type A personality

6.Locus of Control
Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.

7.Machiavellianism (Mach)
Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

8.Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring
Self-Esteem (SE)
Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.

High Risk-taking Managers
Make quicker decisions
Use less information to make decisions
Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations
Low Risk-taking Managers
Are slower to make decisions
Require more information before making decisions
Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
Risk Propensity
Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

10.Personality Types
Proactive Personality
Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs.
Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.

11.Achieving Person-Job Fit
Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland)
Identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover.

12.Emotions- Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB
The “myth of rationality”
Organizations are not emotion-free.
Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.
Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency.

13.Emotional Labor
A situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
Emotional Dissonance
A situation in which an employee must project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another.

14.Felt versus Displayed Emotions
Displayed Emotions
Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job.

15.Variety of emotions
Intensity of emotions
Job Requirements
Frequency and duration of emotions
How often emotions are exhibited.
How long emotions are displayed.



The panel – analytical “tool”
Need to assess the ability of panelist to reproduce judgements
Inconsistent judgements –
General attitude
Emotional state of panelist

2.Panelist – office, plant or research staff
Part of work routine for personnel
Full cooperation of supervisors of panelist
No need to evaluate if objects
The higher no. semitrained panel, higher individual variations balance out
Small, highly trained panel give reliable result than large untrained panel
Min 10 – 20 persons with three or four replications by each judge for each treatment

3.Panelist – good health, absent if conditions might interfere with normal function of taste and smell
Emotional factor, interest, and motivation more important than age,sex
General guideline – refrain from smoking, chewing gum, eating or drinking for at least 30 min
Motivation of panelist affects response –
Interested – more efficient
Make it an important activity, their contribution important as well
How?? Running the test in a controlled, efficient manner 

4.Selection of panelist based on treshold tests is unreliable (Amerine et al. 1965)
Better – selection based on ability to detect differences in the food to be tasted
Start with a large group
Rank them according to their ability to discriminate among samples prepared
Panelist – inherent sensitivity to the characteristic being evaluated and should be able to duplicate judgments
New panel – each product, because person who discriminate well on some products often and not on others
Disregard their personal preferences

All experiment – simple mathematical model
Variability in results of sensory tests – interpretation by statistical methods
Results expressed in degrees of significance, which is the probability that the results are caused by chance.

Expectation error
Stimulus error
Logical error
Halo effect
Contrast effect
Positional bias

Any information the panelists receive about the test will influence the results
Preconceived impression
Samples –coded so that panelist can’t identify
Code – should not introduce bias
Use 3 digit random numbers

Desire to be right – judgment of panelist may be influenced by irrelevant characteristics of samples
Because of stimulus error, all samples must be as uniform as possible
Mask unwanted differences

Closely associated with stimulus error
Causes the panelist to assign ratings to particular characteristics because they appear to him to be logically associated with other characteristics
Eg – slight yellow colour in dehydrated potatoes may indicate oxidation to the panelist and he will find different flavour in sample
Control by uniformity and mask differences

When more than one factor in a sample is evaluated
The panelist often forms a general impression of a product and if asked to evaluate it for odour, texture, colour and taste at the same time, results may be different than if evaluate individually
Eliminate this effect by evaluating one characteristics at a time

The response of a panelist can influence reaction of other panelists
Separate panelists – no conversation and discussion
Testing area – free from noise and distraction and separate from the preparation area

Affects his sensory perception
Interested – more efficient
How to maintain – giving them reports of their results
Trained panelist – more motivated
Panelists – made to feel important
How – running the tests in a controlled efficient manner

The presentation of a sample of good quality just before one of poor quality cause the panelist to rate the second sample lower than it would normally be rated, vice versa.
The order of presentation of the samples should be randomized for each panelist so that contrast effect will be equalized

Particularly in the triangle test
When very small differences are found, panelist have a tendency to choose the middle sample as being different.
Can be eliminated by random presentation

PPT On Values Attitudes And Job Satisfaction


Values Attitudes And Job Satisfaction Presentation Transcript:
1.Organizational Behavior

2.Values in the Rokeach Survey

3.Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Members, and activist

Future Orientation
Gender differentiation
Uncertainty avoidance
Power distance
In-group collectivism
Power orientation
Humane orientation


6.Types of Attitudes

7.Measuring the A-B Relationship

8.Self-Perception Theory

9.Measuring Job Satisfaction
Single global rating
Summation score
How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
Job satisfaction declined to 50.7% in 2000
Decline attributed to:
Pressures to increase productivity
Less control over work

10.Satisfaction and Productivity
Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.
Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.
Satisfaction and Absenteeism
Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.
Satisfaction and Turnover
Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers.

11.Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

12.How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction

13.Job Satisfaction and OCB
Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB)
Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.



SENSORY TESTING Presentation Transcript:
1.2.0 The stage in Food Product Development:
Idea Stage
Development Stage
Sensory Evaluation Stage
Consumer Sampling Stage
Shelf-life Stage
Packaging Stage
Market testing Stage
Commercialization Stage


Special – minimized distraction
Quiet, comfortable environment
Air-conditioned, control humidity
Location – somewhere accessible by panels
Preparation area – no entry for panelist
Might gain info that would influence their judgement
Foreign odours and odours from food preparation –eliminate (including smoking)

Panelists – independent judgements
Use individual booth (no communications)
Put partitions
Construct booths along the wall that divides room
Communication panelist –operator
Switch as a signal, bell, domed hatch, etc
Sink and tap built into each booth, for rinsing
May cause odour problem (recommend suction type)
Colour – off white, light gray (not influence judgement)
Descriptive analysis and panel training session
Round table – permits discussion and passing of standards

Not influence the appearance of product to be tested
If colour/appearance to be judged
Choose light carefully
Fluorescent light distort colour
If eliminate color differences –
Coloured lights are used (eg- red)
Still have intensity differences
Dimmed lights

Time of day influence results
Lunch – better results but may not be accurate (hungry)
Best time –
Late morning and midafternoon

Well equipped kitchen
Good ventilation system for removal of cooking odour
Sufficient counter space – serving and assembling samples for presentations
Food – normal state
Preparation fully depend on the sample

Most foods served – normally consumed
Dilution – hot sauces and spices
Bland white sauce, sugar syrup
Effect should be considered
Hydrocolloid gels – taste masking effect
Not necessary – whipping cream, cheese spread, ketchup
Use of carriers – crackers for jam, sausage for ketchup, adds cost and efforts, difficult to select appropriate carrier
Carriers – source of experimental error –
Proportion of product to carrier may not be constant
Carrier –quality unconsistent
Nature of product – necessitate that it be tested with carrier
Eg – pie filling, pastry/ icing,cake/ etc

Serve at temperature normally consumed
Discriminate test – better if slightly warmer/cooler. Eg – edible oil (44ºC)
Serving temperature:
Hot foods – 60 -66ºC
Ice cream - -1 to 2ºC
Methods of controlling temperature
Warming ovens with controlled temperature and humidity
Electrically heated beakers
Blocks of styrofoam – cut out to hold containers, help maintain temperature

Serving utensils –
not impart any taste, odour
Identical containers – minimize bias
Colourless/white container
Disposable dishes
Odour testing – stemmed wine glasses

Discrimination test – 16ml liquid, 28g solid
Preference test – double the amount
Amount should be constant throughout test
Why quantity important?
Enough to taste back and forth, and decide
Spices – controlled quantity
Cheese bitterness – use quinine sulfate

Determined during preliminary testing
Things to consider when deciding numbers:
Type of product
Experience of judges
Panelists lose desire first before lose their capability

Presentation of sample of good quality just begore one of poor quality – second becomes lower than normal
Important to randomized/balanced – small number of samples and panelist, the order can be balanced so that every possible order occurs an equal number of time

Provide an agent for oral rinsing between samples
Taste neutral water is preferred
Fatty food – warm water (more effective)
Removal of flavours – crackers, apples, celery and bread
Trained cheddar cheese panelist – rinse and wait for 5 minutes before another sample

Give as little info to panelist about sample
May influence result
Eg –tomato juice was told to be high quality, ratings were higher
This preconceived impression – expectation error
Person who are directly involved with the experiment should not be included on the panel

PPT On Individual Behavior


Individual Behavior Presentation Transcript:
1.Foundation of Individual Behavior

2.Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristics—such as age, gender, and marital status—that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records.

3.Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence
Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.
Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities.
Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains subparts: social, emotional, and cultural.

4.Nine Physical Abilities

5.The Ability-Job Fit

Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.

7.Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response.

8.Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.

9.Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation and direct experience.

10.Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response.

11.Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs.
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior.
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its cessation.

12.Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated.
Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated.
Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals.
Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses.

13.OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.

14.Well Pay versus Sick Pay
Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence.
Employee Discipline
The use of punishment can be counter-productive.
Developing Training Programs
OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.
Reduces the need for external management control.




Some new products are unique (novel)
Most new products are imitations or variations of some established standards
Product developers need information – sensory quality and relative acceptability of experimental prototype samples as input for marketability

Characterisation of product prototype samples to determine uniqueness of product (different from established products)
Evaluation of experimental prototype samples to establish whether differences exist among them
Determination of whether the prototype samples meet the acceptability requirements established for the product (eg. Whether equal or better than the standard)

Duplicating a standard (a prototype, a competitor’s product, etc)
Objective: To verify that there is no difference between the standard and experimental product and that the two have equivalent acceptability

QC procedures are used during production, distribution and marketing to ensure that the end product is as good as the standard
Representative samples are usually evaluated as follows:
Difference test – to determine whether sample is different from standard
Descriptive test – to determine how sample is different from standard

Product stability during transportation, warehousing, retailing and during home storage is essential to consumer satisfaction

Obtain representative samples
Evaluate initially
Subject samples to controlled storage conditions for subsequent tests
Withdraw storage samples at specific time intervals and evaluate. Compare with control samples
Note: control samples must be of the same production lot or batch as the samples and must be held under conditions known to maintain original quality

Difference tests – to determine whether storage samples differ from control samples
Descriptive tests – to characterise or quantify changes that may have occurred during storage
Acceptance tests – to determine relative acceptance of stored products

PPT On Virtual Projection


Virtual Projection Presentation Transcript: 
1.Virtual Projection

2.What is virtual projection?
What it needs?
How it works?
Virtual projection vs. Traditional projection

3.What is virtual projection?
A technology that uses smartphone cameras to fire mobile images onto another display. It’s a bit like having a Pico projector for digital screens

4.What it needs?
A smart phone
Running pc with an installed virtual projection software
Wi-Fi connection

5.When you hold your phone up to the screen of a computer running the virtual projection software
 The phone's camera constantly captures and compares images from the screen to work out its location.
 This information is passed back to the computer via Wi-Fi to place the virtual projection in the right place on the screen.

6. Losing image intensity at greater distances
Undergoing keystone distortion when projected from an angle
Rotating and scaling images
Way of connection
Tracking inputs from several devices once.


PPT On Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis Presentation Transcript: 

2.What is tuberculosis?

3.Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease. It is caused Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which was first isolated in 1882 by Robert Koch, a German physisian, who received the Nobel Prize for this discovery.
Many years ago it was a lethal disease, as there was no cure, but today it can be successfully treated with antibiotics.

4.What causes tuberculosis?

5.It is mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, usually spread from person to person through airborne particles and from infected particles.
If somebody’s immune system is strong he is not developing infection, although he will carry the bacteria but it won’t be contagious. If his immune system isn’t strong enough to fight bacteria, then he will be ill and contagious.

6.Who is in risk for getting infected?
people living with those  who have active TB infection,
poor / homeless people,
People born in countries with higher rates of TB among population,
prison inmates,
alcoholics and drug users,
people with diabetes, certain cancers, and HIV infection,
health-care workers.

7.It is needed a combination of skin, blood, and imaging tests, so as doctors to diagnose TB.
Mantoux test, is the most common diagnostic test. It is a simple skin test that  consists of a small amount of purified protein derivative (PPD) tuberculin injected into the forearm. After 48 to 72 hours, they check for skin reaction. Positive test is indicated by a hard red bump in the injected area.
8.To determine whether TB is active or latent (inactive), doctors usually run blood and microscopic sputum analyses or cultures.
Finally, chest x-rays and computer tomography (CT) scans are also used to diagnose TB.

9.    The vaccine is bacillus Calmette – Guérin (BCG) which, confers inconsistent protection against contracting pulmonary TB and it is the most used vaccine worldwide, with more than 90% of all children being vaccinated. It needs though to be done again as immunity lasts for 10 years. As tuberculosis is uncommon in most of Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States, BCG is only administered to people at high risk.
10.It depends on the type of infection: active of latent.
Inactive state: an antibiotic called isoniazid (INH) is prescribed for six to twelve months, except pregnant women, as it has possible side effects such as liver damage and peripheral neuropathy.  Active TB: INH and drugs such as rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, as well as streptomycin if the disease is extensive. Drug therapies for TB may last many months or even years.  It is important to finish medications and treatment as prescribed from their doctor in order to completely eradicate the TB bacteria from the body. In December 2012, a new medicine Sirturo (bedaquiline) was approved as part of a combination therapy for adults with multi-drug resistant TB. 

PPT On Top 10 Stocks of 2013


Top 10 Stocks of 2013 Presentation Transcript:
1.Top 10 stocks of 2013

2.While many were predicting a positive year for stocks, the speed of the gains has taken Wall Street by surprise. Add dividends to the S&P 500's rise and the total return for the first half is 13.8%.
Beaten-down names rebound
A look at the best performers in the flagship Standard & Poor's 500 Index ($INX) finds that many of the top performers in the first half of 2013 were stocks that investors had essentially left for dead in the past year or two.

3.No. 1: Best Buy
Ticker: BBY
Sector: Consumer electronics stores
Year to date: 130.6%
Best Buy revenue is stuck, and the company has few growth prospects in an era of low-margin electronics, e-commerce competition and digital content upending the need for in-store DVD and CD sales.

4.No. 2: Netflix
Ticker: NFLX
Sector: Streaming media
Year to date: 128%
Netflix posted a surprise profit to start 2013.The stock closed the first half of 2013 at $211.09 per share.

5.No. 3: Micron Technology
Ticker: MU
Sector: Semiconductors
Year to date: 126%
Micron remains under pressure, the company did manage to cut costs and project future stability based on efficiencies alone.

6.No. 4: Hewlett-Packard
Ticker: HPQ
Sector: Computer systems
Year to date: 74%
Hewlett-Packard  has been cutting costs and focusing on enterprise hardware and software.

7.No. 5: Advanced Micro Devices
Ticker: AMD
Sector: Personal computer and server microprocessors
Year to date: 70%
Advanced Micro Devices has tacked on significant gains since January,.

8.No. 6: GameStop
Ticker: GME
Sector: Video game sales
Year to date: 67.5%
There has been favorable news for the company, including next-generation video game consoles coming to market, a development that generates enthusiasm among gamers.

9.No. 7: Boston Scientific
Ticker: BSX
Sector: Medical devices
Year to date: 61.8%
Boston Scientific sells medical devices, traditionally implantable heart-disease treatments like defibrillators and pacemakers. With baby boomers aging and chronic heart disease a big problem in the

10.No. 8: Life Technologies
Ticker: LIFE
Sector: Diagnostics, research
Year to date: 50.9%
Life Technologies is an industrial and life-sciences company focused on food- and water-safety testing, among other things.

11.No. 9: CME Group
Ticker: CME
Sector: Financial exchange
Year to date: 49.9%
As economic activity improves and investors start to get "risk on," activity will heat up on the CME, and so will profits for the company. At least, that was the thinking behind the big run-up in CME shares over the past six months.

12.No. 10: H&R Block
Ticker: HRB
Sector: Tax preparation
Year to date: 49.4%
H&R Block is a highly seasonal & highly cyclical business.


PPT On Top 10 Medicinal Plants and Herbs


Top 10 Medicinal Plants and Herbs Presentation Transcript:
1.Top 10 Medicinal Plants and Herbs


3.Ginseng is one of the most famous medicinal plants, with many uses, especially for general health.
The root  is used for nervous system relaxation, as the leaves are used to improve your immune system and stamina of the body.
It also reduces cholesterol levels and it is used as treatment of lack of appetite and insomnia.

4.Tea oil is widely used in cosmetics.
    It’s extracted from its leaves and twigs and  has many uses including:
 the treatment of acne,
vaginal infections,
insect bites,
cold sorts,
minor burns,
thrush and
other syndromes like chronic fatigue.

5.It is well known of its smell, with the cooling sensation down your throat.
This medicinal plant is in application since the ancient times.
Peppermint is naturally enriched with Vitamin A , C and manganese. and is also very helpful  in reducing numerous symptoms such as irritable bowel syndrome, upset stomachs, fevers, flatulence and spastic colon.

6.Blackberries are very tasty, so they are used in both cooking, making marmalades and pattiserie, and as they are enriched with antioxidants and vitamins have also various uses as medicines.
 The root and leaves can be used as an effective treatment against diarrhea and dysentery and can be served as an anti-inflammatory, for cuts and mouth inflammations, as a substitute of Glycerine, and  as astringent.

7.Sage, whose name is from a latin word that means “heal”, is a plant used in both cooking and medical purposes.
The healing property of this plant includes curing  infections on skin and mouth, as well as it helps with indigestion, insect bites, flatulence, depression, even menopausal problems.

8.Echinacea is a flower with medical use and is considered to be the best herb for the treatment of burns, cuts and wounds.
It can also be used as:
a treatment of sores,
allergy relief,
insect bites, stings and snakebites.
This can be used for energy relief and
Strength of the immune system.

9.Also known as Lappa burdock.
Burdock is used as a blood purifying agent and is a treatment to skin diseases.
Its flowers are purple and green which makes the plant beautiful to look at, as its other uses include boils, rashes, bruises, burns, acne, ringworm and bites

10. Holy Basil (or tulsi as it is called in India) is a very widely known herb and it’s sacred for Indian people.     Its medicinal uses:
 bring down fever,
fight cold and flu,
tulsi oil can be used as a potent anti malarial drug
reduce earache.
it also increases the antibody production of the body.

11.Many discussions in medical community have been made for the use of marijuana.
Apart being used as a drug, it is also for medical reasons as analgesic and sedative, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsive and laxative.

12.Aloe Vera is widely used to heal the burns, wounds.
The bottom stalk of the aloe vera can be used as a balm on the burn thereby relieving you instantly.
It also treats eczema and reduces inflammation, as it  can also treat digestive problems, ulcerative colitis, chronic constipation and poor appetite.

13.Use herbs in cuisine and everyday life and you will notice the difference.

14.An easy way to have instant access to these herbs is to grow them in your own balcony
It’s not as difficult as it may seem to you! 




2.Understanding the importance of time management
Analysis of time
Planning time and resources
Setting goals and objectives
Planning to achieve goals

Time is a scarce and precious resource.
It helps to balance various aspects of life and to analyze time-wasters and
The focus is not so much on ‘managing’ or ‘spending time’ as on
 ‘investing time’ in activities or tasks that are important.
 Time management is not just about utilizing time appropriately, it is also
about identifying and avoiding time-wasting activities.

4.Planning makes time management effective. An ideal plan should include the components like time factor, rewards and grouping of tasks.
Time Factor: An ideal plan specifies the time required for a specific task (if known either from the time logs or from experience) in the plan. This helps in preventing over-allocation of time to a particular task in a given plan.
Rewards: A manager should include rewards in the planning process. A good plan includes rewards for meeting deadlines and targets. These rewards should motivate the managers to meet deadlines and objectives.
Grouping of Tasks: In a plan, similar or related activities can be grouped together for effective planning. The grouping of tasks allows managers to work on tasks effectively without loss of concentration or any deviations.

5.     Matrix of Time     

A goal is defined as a desired result. It specifies a performance, result, or outcome.
 Goals provide a standard way to measure an outcome or result or an accomplishment.
A goal provides managers with regular feedback on their performance.
 It enables them to work better. They can identify the areas to which resources and efforts need to be channeled.
The goal setting makes managers feel more responsible and accountable for their work and activities.
Setting Goals
The manager must set Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timed (SMART) goals.
Specific: The goals must be specific. They should answer the questions of what, why, when, who, and where and
 relate well to both the manager as well as the organization.
Example: A short-term goal for a manager could be “to reach office by 9:00 am this entire week” and a long-term goal could be “to earn $ 2 million in the next 15 years”.

7. Measurable: The goals must be measurable. If they are not, then it is difficult to achieve them. The goals can be measured by the amount of time required to achieve them. Example: A manager may have a goal of “getting two new clients in a month”. Achievable: The goals should be achievable and ideally be small, discrete objectives that can be attained immediately. Realistic: The goals should be realistic. While setting the goals, managers should consider the resources available with them and set goals depending on their capabilities. Timed:  The goals should have a time target or deadline. A target helps in keeping track of the goals achieved till then. A manager should set time limits and deadlines for realizing the goals.

8.Time management is spending time based on priorities and controlling the wastage of time.
A goal is defined output or desired result. A goal is important to improve the productivity of the work, monitor the progress of work and to act as a milestone.
A goal should be SMART i.e. specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and timed.
A plan can be prepared for different time spans like long-term, short-term and daily plans.
A weekly plan provides a balance between the views of the long-term, short-term and daily plans. It is flexible and can be altered with the changes in the environment and other conditions.

PPT On Steve Jobs Principles


Steve Jobs Principles Presentation Transcript:

2.The Steve Jobs Way
“Being the richest man in the cemetery doesn’t matter to me … Going to bed at night saying we’ve done something wonderful… that’s what matters to me  -  Steve Job”
Steve Jobs is the classic American entrepreneur — starting his company in the spare bedroom of his parents’ house 
His pioneering the development of the first personal computer for everyday use. Jobs was fired from the company 
He had started but he returned in 1997 . It was 12 years later, and Apple was close to bankruptcy . 
Jobs not only saved the company but in the next 10 years reinvented not just one industry 
but four — computing, music, telecommunications and entertainment (let’s not forget he’s the CEO of a little company called Pixar).
3.Principle One: Do what you love
In 2005, Steve Jobs told Stanford University’s graduating class that the secret to success is having “the courage to follow your heart and intuition.” Inside, he suggested, you “already know what you truly want to become.”
Steve Jobs once told a group of employees, “People with passion can change the world for the better.”  Jobs has followed his heart his entire life and that passion, he says, has made all the difference.  It’s very difficult to come up with new, creative, and novel ideas unless you are passionate about moving society forward.

4.Principle Two: Put a dent in the universe
Think differently about your vision. 
Jobs attracted like-minded people who shared his vision and who helped turn his ideas into world-changing innovations. Passion fueled Apple’s rocket and Jobs’ vision created the destination.
Steve Jobs attracts evangelists who share his vision and who help turn his ideas into world-changing innovations. 
 He has never underestimated the power of vision to move a brand forward.

5.Principle Two: Put a dent in the universe(Continue)
In 1979, Jobs took a tour of the Xerox research facility in Palo Alto, California. There he saw a new technology that let users interact with the computer via colorful graphical icons on the screen instead of entering complex line commands. It was called a “graphical user interface.” In that moment, Jobs knew that this technology would allow him to fulfill his vision of putting a computer in the hands of everyday people. He went back to Apple and refocused his team on building the computer that would eventually become the Macintosh and forever change the way we talked to computers. Jobs later said that “Xerox could have “dominated” the computer industry but instead its “vision” was limited to building another copier”.

6.Principle Three: Kick start your brain
People are creatures of habit and habits are formed to make life easier. To kick start your brain, we need to experience different things and look for solutions in different areas. If you are familiar with the power supplies on Apple laptops, they have a magnet that connects the cord from the computer to the wall. Thus if you trip over the cord then it comes off as opposed to having your laptop pulled off the table. This seems obvious now that Apple is delivering it but that is an innovative idea.
Look outside your box for better ideas. Look outside your industry.
Think differently about how you think.
Innovation does not exist without creativity, and for Steve Jobs, creativity was the act of connecting things. Jobs believed that a broad set of experiences broadened the understanding of the human experience.

7.Principle Three: Kick start your brain (Continue)
Jobs creates new ideas precisely because he has spent a lifetime exploring new and unrelated things — seeking out diverse experiences. Jobs hired people from outside the computing profession. He studied the art of calligraphy in college (a study that found its way into the first Macintosh), meditated in an Indian ashram, studied the fine details of a Mercedes-Benz or European-made washer-dryers for product ideas, and evaluated The Four Seasons hotel chain as he developed the customer service model for the Apple Stores. Look outside your industry for inspiration. Bombard the brain with new experiences. Remove the shackles of past experiences.

8.Principle Four: Sell dreams, not products
Think differently about your customers. 
To Jobs, people who bought Apple products were never “consumers.” They were people with dreams, hopes, and ambitions. Jobs built products to help them fulfill their dreams.
Apple customers are glad Jobs doesn’t do focus groups. If he had, they may never have enjoyed iPods, iTunes, the iPhone, the iPad, or Apple Stores.
Jobs think differently to buy an Apple computer. He think the people who do buy them do think differently. They are the creative spirits in this world.
How do you see your customers? Help them unleash their inner genius, and you’ll win over their hearts and minds. Nobody cares about your company or product. They care about themselves, their dreams, and their goals. Help them achieve their aspirations, and you’ll win them over the Steve Jobs way

9.Principle Five: Say no to 1,000 things
Steve Jobs once said the secret to innovation is “saying no to 1,000 things.” In other words, Jobs is as proud of what apple does not do as he is about what Apple does choose to pursue. 
Think differently about design. 
Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication, according to Jobs. From the designs of the iPod to the iPhone, from the packaging of the Apple’s products to the functionality of the Apple Web site, innovation means eliminating the unnecessary so that the necessary may speak.

10.Principle Five: Say no to 1,000 things(Continue)
This advice applies to your career and personal life as well. The lesson — don’t spread yourself too thin. Find the career that intersects your passion, skill, and the ability to make money doing it. Once you find it, focus on it, work at it, and dedicate yourself to excellence in that area. Say “no” to anything else that will distract you from pursuing that career. If you are looking for work or frustrated with your current job, there will be plenty of friends, families, and colleagues who offer unsolicited advice on what’s best for you. Filter out the ideas that might derail you from the career that best matches your strengths and passion. When you find it, pursue it with a single-minded sense of purpose.

11.Principle Six: Create insanely great experiences
Think differently about your brand experience.
Jobs made Apple stores the gold standard in customer service. The Apple store has become the world’s best retailer by introducing simple innovations any business can adopt to make deep, lasting emotional connections with their customers.
There are no cashiers in an Apple store. There are experts, consultants, even geniuses, but no cashiers. According to Jobs, “People don’t want to just buy personal computers anymore. They want to know what they can do with them, and we’re going to show people exactly that.” 
Look outside your company for ideas on how to stand out from your competitors. Above all, have fun. Passion is contagious. If your employees are not having fun, your customers will not be, either.

12.Principle Seven: Master the message
Think differently about your story.
Steve Jobs is the world’s greatest corporate storyteller, turning product launches into an art form.  You can have the most innovative idea in the world, but if you can’t get people excited about it, it doesn’t matter.
Make innovation a part of your brands’ DNA by thinking differently about your business challenges. 

PPT On The New Art of The Leader


 The New Art of The Leader Presentation Transcript:
1.“All good leadership is founded on basic honesty”


3.Bill Cohen studied under Peter Drucker from 1975-79.
Became the first graduate of Peter’s executive graduate program

4.“The one quality that can be developed by studious reflections and practice is the leadership on men.” – President Eisenhowerr.
“Leadership is of utmost importance. Indeed there is no substitute for it.” – Peter Drucker, 1955.

5.Take Charge
Win Respect
Build your Organization
Multiply productivity
Use the 7 ways to get anyone to follow you
Gain Self – Confidence

6.One man can make a difference
Let’s ask Pf. Warren Bennis
Leadership is not  a “one” man task
You need people to supplement your task
You do not need to be a manager to be leader.
How can you lead before you are promoted?

7.“The factor that empowers the workforce & ultimately determines which organization succeed or fail is leadership of those organizations. When strategies, processes or cultures change, the key to improvement remains leadership.”
– Pf. Warren Bennis

8.Patton’s definition of leadership:
“The art of getting your sub-ordinates to do the impossible.”
Author’s definition:
“The art of influencing others to their maximum performance to accomplish any task, objective or project.”

9.Can you always get people to perform to their maximum potential?
First win over the minds of others.
Leaders are made, not born.
People will readily follow you in different circumstances for other reasons – if you know how to lead.

10.One man can make a difference.
Obtain help form others to become successful through the practice of leadership.
You don’t need to be a manager to be a leader.
Learning the combat model of leadership
Leadership – to motivate people to perform to their max potential.
Leaders are made not born.
Your ability to motivate people is independent of factors like a pleasant working condition.


12.Make others feel important
Promote your vision
Treat others as you would be treated yourself
Take responsibility for your actions and those of your group

13.Praise in public, criticize in private
Take the time to see and be seen
Use competitions to make striving a game

14.Become an uncrowned leader
Hundreds of opportunities
How to find uncrowned leadership jobs?
Don’t fight; stay back.
Just help the group as best as you can
As Marine corps Colonel Al Garsys, a friend and classmate of the author, says: “I can lead and I can follow. An important aspect of leadership is knowing when to do which.”

15.Be an unselfish teacher
a helper of others
Give some of your time and resources
Teach and help others, even at the cost of yourself
While teaching, you’ll gain additional resources.

PPT On The Brand Gap


The Brand Gap Presentation Transcript:
1.The brand   

 Written by Marty Neumeier

3.A modern definition of brand
The five disciplines of brand-building

4.Before we start, it’s important we dispel some myths:

5.A brand is not a logo.

6.By now you must be wondering,
what then is a brand?


8.  Because brands are defined by individuals; not companies, markets, or publics.
It’s more of the people’s perspective rather than the company’s perspective.

9.Because people are emotional, intuitive beings.

10.People have too many options to choose from and too little time
Most offerings have similar quality and features
We tend to base our buying choices on trust

11.There is a problem in most Companies when it comes to branding…

12.And the journey to making your brand charismatic begins with…

13.One major reason why companies lose focus is through development of bad brand extensions.
These are extensions that chase short-term profits at the
expense of long-term brand value.
Good brand extensions will always grow the value of a brand by reinforcing its focus.

14.Reason why Companies have so much trouble with Creativity…

15.3. For products that sell at retail, the package is often the  best and last chance to make a sale.

PPT On 7 Steps to Sweet Dreams


7 Steps to Sweet Dreams Presentation Transcript:
 1.Steps to sweet dreams

2. Poor sleep is a really important matter as it affects everything from your job performance and sex life to overall health.
There is an association with feelings of hostility, depression, and anger, as well as higher risks of diabetes and heart disease.
 Here, some easy ways to sleep tight and well in the night.

3.Stop annoying noises
Snoring, beeping or traffic and whatever keeps you awake is better to tune it all out with a relaxing soundtrack. Put a comfortable and easy to wear pair of headphones, as in ear phones are dangerous as you sleep, and have a nice sleep.

4.Prepare your body
    Everything that can help you relax is useful. A new technique proposed is to curl your toes tightly for a count of seven, and then relax. Repeat through each muscle group, working up from your toes to your neck. That will relax your whole body and make you want to sleep.

5.Take notes
    Keep a diary of your daily routine as everything can affect your way of sleeping and your sleeping habits.
    Every day, record how much caffeine you drink, when and how much you exercise, what you eat, when you go to bed and wake up, as well as your total sleep time.

6.Keep cool
    If you want to sleep better, you should have a smaller temperature than usual. Set your thermostat to around 65 degrees or lower. If you kick off the covers, then try a cooling mattress pad, moisture-wicking sheets, or a pair of breathable cotton pajamas.

7.Relax right
    Instead of thinking of anything you did during the day, try doing that at least two hours earlier, so your mind’s not racing when you turn in.
    Right before bed, try relaxing with an imagery exercise: Picture any tranquil scene, like a day at the beach. Over time, the new routine will help cue your brain to settle down.

8.Healthy eating
    There is no need to analyze why healthy eating makes the best for you and your sleep routine. Avoid sugars and heavy meals before bed as they give energy that you don’t need that moment and prefer some fruits and veggies.

9.Avoid coffee
    If there is no need to drink coffee and you want to have a regular sleep routine, it’s easier to stay away from coffee or tea, cola or anything with high dose of caffeine.

PPT On Sports Nutrition


Sports Nutrition Presentation Transcript:
1.Sports nutrition

The study and practice of nutrition and diet as it relates to athletic performance.
The type and quantity of fluid and food taken by an athlete.
Deals with nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, supplements and organic substances

3.Promoting Athletic  Success.
Influencing product development and promoting the growth of the sports nutrition market.
Sports nutrition goes beyond sports bars and sports drinks.
Athletes need to nourish themselves properly for maximum results.

4.Symptoms of fatigue, cramping muscles, depression, mood swings, and restless leg syndrome.
Body Fat %? measuring the thickness of certain skin folds on the body.
Optimal for Professional Athletes
                                                          5-10% of body fat
 Benefit the most from the amount of carbohydrates stored in the body.
Moderate exercise: carbs ?40 to 50 %energy.
Beneficial for the athlete to use the energy source requiring the least amount of oxygen per kilocalorie produced.
       work Intensity              Carbs Utilization

6.Body stores a limited amount of carbohydrate in the muscles and liver.
Event = 90 min= glycogen stored is enough.
Sugar eaten before an event may hinder performance because it triggers a surge of insulin.
The insulin causes a sharp drop in blood sugar level in about 30 minutes.

7.Water is needed to absorb the sugar into the cells.
Athletes should start any event hydrated and replace as much lost fluid as possible by drinking chilled liquids at frequent intervals during the event. Chilled fluids are absorbed faster and help lower body temperature.

8.Provides body fuel.
Using fat as fuel depends on the event's duration and the athlete's condition.
Trained athletes use fat for energy more quickly than untrained athletes.
Consumption of fat should not fall below 15 % of total energy intake.
The rate of fat metabolism may be accelerated by ingesting caffeine prior to and during endurance performance.

9. Exercise may increase an athlete's need for protein, depending on the type and frequency of exercise. Extra protein consumed is stored as fat.
Sports Anaemia:
     May appear in the early stages of training with intakes of less than 1 gram/kg of body weight per day of high quality protein.
Excess protein can deprive the athlete of more efficient fuel and can lead to dehydration.

10.Vitamins and Minerals
Thiamin, riboflavin and niacin (B vitamins)
Some female athletes may lack riboflavin, so ensuring adequate consumption of riboflavin-rich food is important, like milk.
Milk products not only increase the riboflavin level but also provide protein and calcium.

11.Fat-Soluble Vitamins
     Stores excess fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Excessive amounts of fat-soluble vitamins may have toxic effects.
 Exercise affects the body's supply of sodium,  potassium, iron and calcium.
 Sweating during exercise increases the concentration of salt in the body.
 Consuming salt tablets after competition and workouts is not advised as this will remove water from your cells, causing weak muscles.

12.Female athletes who train heavily have a high incidence of amenorrhea, the absence of regular, monthly periods, and thus conserve iron stores.
To avoid this problem, eat fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads and cereals..
Important in bone health and muscle function.
Choosing low-fat dairy products, provide the best source of calcium.

13.Good sodium guidelines
Avoid excessive amounts of sodium in the diet.
Beverages containing sodium after endurance events may be helpful.
Eating potassium-rich foods such as oranges, bananas and potatoes throughout training and after competition supplies necessary potassium.
. Female athletes and athletes between 13 and 19 years old may have inadequate supplies of iron due to menstruation and strenuous exercise.



SCHIZOPHRENIA Presentation Transcript:

1 % of Adults
A mean Duration – 15 Years
Peak Incidence 25-30yrs
Smaller Peak – Over 65
High Rates – Lower Social Classes
                      Central zones of larger cities

3.Clinical Features
Syndrome of abnormalities
Several Spheres


5.Type 1 Schizophrenia
Type 2 Schizophrenia?
Acute undifferentiated Schizophrenia
Paranoid Schizophrenia
Chronic schizophrenia

6.Schizophrenia Or Mania?


Mental State
                 ?Mania-Pronounce elation of mood

                  ?Repeated episodes occur in              
                  ?Gradual accumulation of (-) Symp.
7.Symptomatic Schizophrenia   Amphetamione psychosis
   Alcoholic hallucinosis
Auditory Hallucinations (primary)
Toxic Psychosis due to hallucinogens
Mescaline, lysergic acid and psilocylin
Differentiable in color and shape constancy.
Paranoid psychosis
Development of sensitive, suspicious and rigid personality.
Jealousy and erotomania
Cycloid Psychoses
Manic –depressive Illness
The excited pole and a inhibited depressesed pole

8. Amphetamines and cocaine
 L-Dopa -increases the levels of dopamine
 Neuroleptic drugs (chlorpromazine) ?Immediately on Hallucinations
   ?Weeks to affect the behaviour of the patients. Dopamine hypothesis is unable to explain this delay.
 Chlorpromazine?little/no difference to 30%

9.Chlorpromazine  - an anti-psychotic drug
Clozapine – To treat the Negative Symptoms
Both dopamine and serotonin are
   probably involved, but the precise role played by each is unclear.

10.Acute Schizophrenia ( Type 1) + symptoms
? May make Complete recovery.
Chronic Schizophrenia
?Patient progressively may get disabled
10% - Rapid & Permanent Deterioration
35% - Mild & Persistent Symptoms
35% - Appear Cure but have relapse of Illness
20% - Apparently cure and stable  

Drug Screening
Test for organic illness
Psycho- Social
Asses Home environment

12.Acute Phase
Long term Treatment

13.Pre Morbid:
Family History
Schizoid Personality
Home environment
Poor Previous Work Record
Gradual Onset
Absence of Prominent Affective Symptoms
Pronounced Negative Symptoms




2.Post Translational Modification
Chemical modifications
A key role in functional proteomics

3. By the covalent addition of functional groups to proteins, proteolytic cleavage of regulatory subunits or degradation
       The functional diversity proteome.

Addition of a phosphate(PO43-) group.
Phosphorylation           protein enzymes
Phosphorylation is associated with respiration and photosynthesis.
Metabolic Energy           energy-rich phosphate bonds (ATP).

5.Oxidative phosphorylation
ATP formation = respiratory uptake of oxygen.
ADP + HPO42- + NADH + 1/2 O2 + 2H+ ?         ATP + NAD+ + 2 H2O

A carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
Structural and functional roles in membrane and secreted proteins.
Enzyme-directed site-specific process

7.Types of glycosylation:
N-linked glycans
O-linked glycans
C-linked glycans

Enzymatic process
COO- Glycine from the di-glycine motif in the activated ubiquitin forms an amide bond to the epsilon amine of the lysine in the modified protein.
Activation of ubiquitin
Transfer of ubiquitin
Isopeptide bond between a lysine of the target protein and the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin.

NO + Cysteine             S-Nitrothiols(SNOs)
Used To:
Cells to stabilize proteins
Regulate gene expression
Provide NO donors
The generation, localization, activation and catabolism of SNOs.
SNOs ? Short Life in Cytoplasm
Therefore; Stored in membranes, vesicles, the interstitial space and lipophilic protein folds.

Transfer of methyl groups to N or O2 (N- and O-methylation)to amino acid side chains.
    Hydrophobicity of protein.
S-adenosyl methionine(SAM)?Primary donor.
N-methylation is irreversible.
O-methylation is potentially reversible.

11.The transfer of an acetyl group to nitrogen.
Occurs in all eukaryotic proteins.

To target proteins to Lipid membranes in organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum [ER]
Golgi apparatus
Vesicles (endosomes, lysosomes)
Plasma membrane.

13.Types of Lipidation
C-terminal glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor
N-terminal myristoylation

14.To give proteins a hydrophobic handle for membrane localization.
Group is a 14-carbon saturated fatty acid (C14)

Facilated By N-myristoyltransferase (NMT) & uses myristoyl-CoA (substrate) to
?myristoyl group + N-terminal glycine.

15.GPI anchors
Cell surface proteins      plasma membrane.
Hydrophobic moieties are prepared in the ER.
Often localized to cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich lipid rafts



REVEAL.JS Presentation Transcript:
1.Reveal.js is a framework for easily creating beautiful presentations using HTML. It is a JavaScript framework for creating beautiful and interactive presentations in web applications. Presentation slides are written in HTML or markdown.
Reveal.js was created by Hakim EL Hattab- a Swedish developer working with interactivity, graphics and animation.  Hakim has completed a number of personal projects  including campaign sites in Flash, web apps in HTML, desktop apps in AIR, experimental HTML5 and CSS3 projects as well as mobile development.
reveal.js comes with a broad range of features including nested slides, markdown contents, PDF export, speaker notes and a JavaScript API. It's best viewed in a browser with support for CSS 3D transforms but fallbacks are available to make sure your presentation can still be viewed elsewhere.
Reveal.js presentations are responsive: they look as good on a mobile phone as on a 30? screen with no code changes needed.
Reveal.js consists of one single JavaScript file and two style sheets. The first style sheet defines some common styles, while the second contains the layout of a standard theme, you could build upon. This theme defines the look of the important parts of your presentations as there are text, pictures and links. Themes in Reveal.js can easily be customized as the style sheet is very well structured and easy to comprehend. Transitions between slides, if you like to use this wizardry, are established through CSS 3D transitions.
reveal.js remains a closer ancestor to Slide Share and PowerPoint in its linear presentation form.

2. Markdown/HTML could be used to form presentations
Extended Navigation Possible- mouse navigation in addition to keyboard navigation
WORKS IN MOBILEs/Ipads -fine JavaScript framework- works on Android or iPad without the need for additional tools
Segment presentations  and nesting of slides– sections could be nested and arrow keys used to navigate between sections.
Use your gamepad as a remote to control your slides needs an up to date browser with gamepad support (e.g. current chrome)
Free presentation authoring tool / to export or publish reveal.js presentations quickly.
Zooming application / ZOOM.js - Hold down alt and click on any element to zoom in on it using zoom.js.
Integrated with other Applications – slides and cornify.
      Cornify is the #1 unicorn and rainbow service worldwide, spreading sparkly happiness  
      around the world.

Manage decks  - private decks/shared decks.
Export to PDF
Deck revision history
Slides editor are stored as HTML documents – raw HTML source of your slides can be edited.
Can syncall all work on slides using Dropbox. To view your offline decks navigate to the /Apps/Slides App directory within your Dropbox folder and open any of the deck HTML files. Dropbox could be used to retrieve the work into computers,phones or tablets wherever you are.

You can select from different transitions, like:  Cube - Page - Concave - Zoom - Linear - Fade - None -Default
Reveal.js comes with a few themes built in:  Sky - Beige - Simple - Serif - Night - Default
Additionally custom events can be triggered on a per slide basis by binding to the data-state name.
FRAGMENTED VIEWS - any type, of view, fragments

5.Only a small amount of users who can understand the functionalities could use it. As with most open source projects like this, you are simply expected to know how to look through the source and to do some experiments on your own.
Requirement to have a high graded browsers to support the application
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